Windows and Doors - Weatherization Assistance Program Technical

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WEATHERIZATION INSTALLER/TECHNICIAN FUNDAMENTALS
Windows and Doors
WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
1 | WEATHERIZATION
ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
eere.energy.gov
Learning Objectives
WINDOWS & DOORS
By attending this session, participants will be able to:
• List correct window terminology.
• State how windows lose and gain heat.
• Explain the savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) for window and
door replacement compared to other building shell retrofits.
• Identify various methods and materials for window and
door treatments.
• Discuss recommended window and door replacement criteria.
• Identify methods and techniques for replacing windows and
doors.
2 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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History
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Window and door treatments
were common before costeffectiveness requirements.
• Very popular with clients.
• Met required material-to-labor
cost ratios.
• Before blower doors were
common, couldn’t quantify
envelope leakage.
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
3 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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State of the Practice
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Blower doors identify air-sealing opportunities.
• Computerized energy audits list measures in order of SIR.
Windows and doors rank low.
• Window and door replacement is far less common.
4 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Principles
WINDOWS & DOORS
Solar Heat Gain
Through Double
Pane Insulated Window
Radiation to indoors
Net solar
transmission
Reflected
Heat absorbed
by glass
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
5 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Comparison of SHGC and U-Factor
WINDOWS & DOORS
Glazing
Assembly
U-factor
SHG
1
0.87
Standard
insulated glass
0.50
0.75
Low-e, high SHGC
insulated glass
0.30
0.74
Low-e, low SHGC
insulated glass
0.30
0.41
Single glass
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
6 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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NFRC Window Label
WINDOWS & DOORS
The NFRC rates windows on:
• U-factor.
• Solar heat gain coefficient.
• Visible Transmittance.
• Air leakage.
• Condensation resistance.
7 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Heat Loss, Standard Window Assembly
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Radiation from indoors
to outdoors
• Conduction through
glass and spacers
• Convection adjacent
to interior and exterior
glass surfaces
Indoors
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
8 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Heat Loss, Improved Window Assembly
WINDOWS & DOORS
Improved spacer
• Low-e coating on outdoor
side of inner pane
• Improved spacer
• Gas filled air space
Low-e coating
Gas filled air space
Indoors
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
9 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Window Terminology
WINDOWS & DOORS
Typical
Wood Window
Head Jamb
Upper Sash
Glass Plane
Exterior
Side Jamb
Lower Sash
Stop
Trim
Sill
(sloped)
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
10 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Window Types
WINDOWS & DOORS
Casement
Awning
Picture
Double
Hung
11 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
Slider
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Window Treatments
WINDOWS & DOORS
V-Channels
Where applicable:
• Replace broken glass
• Replace broken sash locks
Stop
Upper Sash
• Weatherstrip meeting rails
and sliding surfaces
• Install pulley seals
• Caulk interior trim
Lower Sash
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
12 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Glass Replacement
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Remove broken pane.
• Measure opening, and
cut new pane from
glass sheet.
• Install, point, and glaze
replacement pane.
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
13 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Guidelines for Window Replacement
WINDOWS & DOORS
Window replacement is not cost-effective unless:
• The existing window creates a hazard to health, safety, or building
durability.
• The existing window is damaged or weathered beyond repair and
the replacement material and labor cost is less than the cost of
repair.
Always attempt to repair or improve existing windows before
considering replacement.
• Window replacement should not be considered a measure to reduce
air infiltration or as a health and safety measure.
Window selection should reflect the climate.
• Choose high SHGC in cold climates and low SHGC in hot climates.
• Look for low-e coatings on interior panes in cold climates and on
exterior panes in hot climates.
14 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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In-Jamb Replacement Method
(Double Hung Window)
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Remove existing frame, sash pulley weights etc.
Tip: Score all painted joints with a sharp utility knife prior to removal
of window trim. Use a thin bladed pry bar to prevent marring the trim.
• Install a complete vinyl unit that fits inside the existing frame
against the exterior window stops.
• Seal perimeter with low expanding foam to ensure an
air tight installation.
• Reinstall existing interior trim and seal with caulk.
• Always employ lead safe work practices when lead
based paint will be disturbed.
15 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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In-jamb Replacement Method
(Double Hung Window)
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
16 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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In-Jamb Replacement Method
(Double Hung Window)
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
17 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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In-Jamb Replacement Method
(Double Hung Window)
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
18 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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In-Jamb Replacement Method
(Double Hung Window)
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy
19 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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• Windows and Doors
1. Protect the floor
3. Clean as you go
2. Wet surfaces
prior to removal
4. Dispose of old
windows properly
Photos courtesy of US Department of Energy
20 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Mobile Home Jalousie Windows
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
Always install factory replacement single-hung or “slider”
units that include self-storing storm windows.
21 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Mobile Home Window Replacement
WINDOWS & DOORS
Photos courtesy of the US Department of Energy
Measure rough openings and acquire the replacements before
removing any windows from the home.
Always insist on factory-replacement windows.
22 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Other Allowable Window Treatments
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Interior storm windows
• Moveable
insulation systems
• Education, encouraging
clients to use:
– Simple methods for high
and low ventilation during
warm periods
– Draperies during cold
periods
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
23 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Doors
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Replacements are not cost
effective because of their high
cost and relatively low impact
on energy savings.
• Potentially significant air
leakage and comfort issues
are due to operational
problems and poor seals.
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
24 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Door Terminology
WINDOWS & DOORS
Top Rail
Hinge
Panel
Hinge Stile
Mullion
Stop
Lock Stile
Jamb
Lock Rail
Casing
Bottom Rail
Threshold
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
25 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Door Repair and Replacement
WINDOWS & DOORS
Replace doors only when cost-effective as
an envelope measure.
• Reduce air leakage.
• Ensure proper closure.
Weatherization measures must have an SIR
equal to or greater than 1.
Sweep
Threshold
Graphic developed for the US DOE WAP Standardized Curricula
26 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Notes on Door Replacement
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Replace the existing door with a solid core wood door blank.
Use this method only if the existing rough opening is reasonably
square and the frame is in good shape.
• Consider a pre-hung energy efficient unit that will fit the
rough opening.
This is accomplished in much less time than retrofitting a door blank.
• Manufacture doors on site for special situations such as
open coal access areas adjacent to conditioned basements.
• Must employ lead-safe work practices when lead-based
paint will be disturbed.
27 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Mobile Home Doors
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Use a factory replacement
exterior pre-hung single
door unit.
• Door framing may have
to be replaced or the
floor repaired.
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
28 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Mobile Home DHWT Closets
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Replace deteriorated doors
with factory replacements.
• Specify louvered doors if
the home has fossil-fueled
appliances to ensure
adequate combustion air.
Photo courtesy of the US Department of Energy
29 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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Summary
WINDOWS & DOORS
• Window and door retrofits should be limited to minor
repairs and weatherstripping.
• Window and door replacements are generally not
cost-effective and should only be considered as a last resort.
• Consider the climate when selecting replacement windows.
• Use lead-safe work practices when disturbing
lead-based paint.
• Follow manufacturer’s instructions for measuring, specifying,
and installing windows.
30 | WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM STANDARDIZED CURRICULUM – July 2012
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