Ch 1 PP Living Things

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Chapter 1– part B
Biology: The Study of Life
QSR
#14
Compound Light
Microscopes
1. Eyepiece – what you look through (10x)
2. Body tube – tube between the eyepiece and objective
lenses
3. Fine adjustment knob – make the last “fine”
adjustments
4. Nosepiece – rotating mount that holds the objective
lenses
5. objective lens – gathers light from the
specimen
 5. High power: longer – higher magnification
 6. Low power: shorter – lower magnification
•7. Diaphragm: regulates the amount of light that
enters the
•8. Light source: either a mirror or light bulb
•9. Base: supports the weight of the microscope
•10. Coarse-adjustment knob – big knob used
for focusing
-should ONLY be used under LOW
magnification
11. Arm – holds body tube to the base
•Microscope is carried by this
•12. Stage clips – holds glass slide in place
•13. Stage – Holds the specimen for viewing
Electron Microscopes
 A. Uses a beam of
electrons instead of
light
 Can magnify up to
500,000 times
 B. 2 types
 1. Scanning electron
microscope
 Scans across the
surface
 2. Transmission
electron microscope
(TEM)
 Allows you to view
INSIDE the
speciman
QSR #14 – COPY AND FILL IN THE BLANKS!!
Characteristics of living things
 1.Made of cells
 Multicellular
 unicellular
 2.Reproduce
 Sexually vs asexually
 3.Change over time
 4.Respond to environment (stimulus vs
response)
 5.Adapt
 6.evolve
Is a virus living?
Viruses are NOT made
of cells….
Important terms:
 Cellular organization
 Cells, tissues, organs, systems, and organism
 Metabolism
 ALL of the chemical processes involved in breaking down or
building up materials for energy
 Homeostasis
 Maintaining internal conditions that are balanced
 Ex: pH levels, sugar levels, hormone levels
Anything that possesses all of the
characteristics of life
organism
T or F…Reproduction is
essential for the survival of
all species
TRUE!!!!
A group of organisms that can
breed and produce fertile
offspring in nature
species
liger
tigon
tigon
zorse
Mule
Stimulus Vs Response
 A STIMULUS is anything in the environment
that requires an organism to adjust/react
 The adjustment made is the RESPONSE.
 EX: Sweating in humans is a response to the
stimulus of high temperature
Adaptation and evolution
 Adaptation
 Any structure or behavior that enables an
organism to better survive in an
environment
 Ex: Length of a giraffe’s neck
 Leads to EVOLUTION of the species
 A change in living things over time
QSR #15
Scientific method




Observing
Making a hypothesis
Collecting data
Publishing results
 Forming a theory
 Developing new
hypotheses
 Revising the theory
QSR #4
 1. _______ ________s are used to
accurately measure the volume of liquids.
 2. ________ are used for cutting during
dissections.
 3. The hottest part of a flame of a bunsen
burner is __________________.
 4.Other than bunsen burners, ______
_______s can be used to heat liquids
inside beakers.
The Methods of Biology
 Observing and Hypothesizing
 EX: Why do earthworms leave their
burrows when it rains?
 To answer questions, scientists use the
 Scientific method
 Id problems to answer by observing
hypothesis
 Explanation for a question or a problem
that can be formally tested
 Must be able to be tested
experiment
 A procedure that tests a hypothesis by
the process of collecting information
under controlled conditions
control
 The group in which all conditions are kept
the same
Experimental group
 Aka the test group
 All conditions are kept the same except
for the single condition being tested
Independent variable
 The condition in an experiment that is
changed
 Also called the manipulated variable
Dependent variable
 As the independent variable changes it
causes changes in this
 Also called the responding variable
 “MIX
DRY” – What does this mean?
Data
 Quantitative vs. qualitative
 Quantitative describes using numbers
 Qualitative describes using words
 Think “quantity vs quality”
 Give a few examples of each:
QSR #15
Theories
 An “explanation” of a natural phenomenon that
is supported by a large body of scientific
evidence obtained from many different
investigations
 Continual verification and refinement of a
hypothesis
 Not proven or “FACT”
 Scientific theory is different from regular
theories
Laws
 Facts of nature that generally known to
be true
 Ex: Newton’s Laws of Motion
Technological Design…
 What if you have a new idea or way to
improve the quality of human life?
 Steps for a new technological design:
 Identify the need → design → implement
→ evaluate the design
IDIE
Section Assessment pg. 20
Suppose you made the
observation that bees seem to
prefer a yellow flower that
produces abundant amounts of
pollen and nectar over a purple
flower that produces less
pollen and nectar. List 2
separate hypotheses that you
might make about bees and
flowers.
Students might
hypothesize that bees
prefer yellow flowers to
purple flowers or that
bees prefer flowers with
more abundant pollen.
Describe a controlled experiment
you could perform to determine
whether ants are more attracted to
butter or honey.
 Set up an experimental chamber. Within
a specific amount of time, count and
record how many ants move to butter
placed a specific distance from the ants.
Repeat several times. Repeat using
honey in place of the butter.
What is the difference
between a theory and a
hypothesis.
 A hypothesis is a testable explanation for
a question. A theory is a refined
explanation supported by many different
experiments.
Why do experiments
usually require a control?
 A control provides greater certainty that
observed results are not due to chance
or other variables.
Describe a way that a baker
might conduct a controlled
experiment with a cookie
recipe.
 Prepare one batch of cookies by
following a recipe and another batch of
cookies by varying a single variable in
the recipe, such as the amount of sugar.
Review the Inside Story. What
happens when a hypothesis is
not confirmed? What does the
position of the word theory
indicate about the strength of
a scientific theory compared
to the strength of a
hypothesis?
A new, revised
hypothesis is tested or
the experiment may be
changed. Theories are
supported by the results
of a variety of
experiments.
1.3 The Nature of Biology
 Kinds of research
 Quantitative vs qualatative
 SI units are used for measuring
 Consistency
 Easy changed
 Based on units of 10
Science and Society
 Knowledge is not bad. It is society’s
intentions that must be considered when
knowledge is gained.
 Ethics– refers to the moral principles and
values held by humans
 Society must be responsible with the knowledge
Future of science
 Can science answer all questions?
 Can technology solve all problems?
 Benefits
 Risks
 Soil irrigation
Section Assessment pg. 25
Why is important that scientific
experiments be repeated?
 To see if the results are repeatable, thus
confirming their authenticity
Compare and contrast
quantitative and
descriptive research.
 Quantitative research reports data in
numerical values based on measuring.
Descriptive research reports data in
written descriptions based on
observations.
Why is science considered
to be a combination of
fact and process?
 A scientist needs a background of
knowledge in his or her field. The
scientific process increases that
knowledge.
Why Is technology not the
solution to all scientific
problems?
 Some problems do not have a scientific
basis. Some technological solutions may
pose more problems than they solve.
Biomedical research has led
to the development of
technology that can keep
elderly, very ill patients
alive. How does the
statement “The results of
research aren’t good or bad;
they just are,” apply to such
research.
The biomedical
researchers sought to
increase knoledge. The
application of the
resulting technology is a
question society must
answer.
Look at the graph in
Figure 1-16. Why do you
think the hightemperature side of the
graph drops off more
sharply than the lowtemperature side.
Paramecia die above a
certain temperature. This
results in a rapid drop in
numbers once this
temperature is reached.
They are better able to
suvive as low temperatures
rise, thus the graph reflects
this increased survival.
Chapter 1 Assessment pg. 29--31
Main Ideas 1.1
 Biology is the organized study of living
things and their interactions with the
natural and physical environments.
 All living things have 4 characteristics in
common: organization, reproduce,
growth and development, and the ability
to adjust to the environment
Vocabulary 1.1







Adaptation
Biology
Development
Energy
Environment
Evolution
growth







Homeostasis
Organism
Organization
Reproduction
Response
Species
stimulus
Main Ideas 1.2
 Biologists use controlled experiments to
obtain data that either do or do not
support a hypothesis. By publishing the
results and conclusions of an experiment,
a scientist allows other to try to verify the
results. Repeated verification over time
leads to the development of a theory.
Vocabulary 1.2





Control
Data
Dependent variable
Experiment
hypothesis




Independent variable
Safety symbols
Scientific methods
theory
Main Ideas 1.3
 Biologists do their work in laboratories
and in the field. They collect both
quantitative and descriptive data from
their experiments and investigations.
 Scientists conduct investigations to
increase knowledge about the natural
world. Scientific results may help solve
some problems, but not all.
Vocabulary 1.3
 Ethics
 technology
Understanding Main Ideas
1. For experiments to be
considered valid, the
results must be
 D. Repeatable
2. Reproduction is an
important life
characteristic because
all living things
 A. Replace
themselves
3. The photograph to the
right is an example of
which characteristic of
life
 C. development
4. Which of the following is
an appropriate scientific
question?
 A. How do
paramecia behave
when a pond
begins to dry up?
Understanding Main Ideas
5.
6.
If data from repeated
experiments do not support
the hypothesis, what is the
scientist’s next step?
7.

8.
B. Revise the
hypothesis
Similar-liiking organisms,
such as dogs showen
below, that can interbreed
and prdocue fertile offspring
are called
 D. A species
The envirnment includes
 A. Air, water,
weather
Which of the following terms
are most releated to each
other
 C. Adaption-evolution
Understanding Main Ideas
9. Which of the following
is not an appropriate
question for science to
consider?
 B. Which type
of orchid flower
is most
beautiful?
10. The single factor that is
altered in an
experiment is the
 D. Independent
variable
11. The information
gained from an
experiment is called
 data
12. The application of
scientific research
to society’s needs is
 technology
Understanding Main Ideas
15. An explanation of a
13. A procedure that
natural phenomenon
tests a hypothesis is
with a high degree of
an
confidence is a
 experiment
 theory
14. Processes that
16. The group that is not
scientist use to
altered in an
solve a problem are
experiment is
called
 control
 Scientific
methods
Understanding Main Ideas
17. The single change in the
manipulated group in an
experiment is an
 independent
18. When a horse swats a fly
with its tail, the fly is the
____ and the swat of the tail
is a _____
 Stimulus
 response
19. The idea that germs are the
cause of disease has been
continuously supported by
experiments and has,
therefore, been elevated to
the status of a
 theory
20. The standard group against
which others are measured
in an experiment is a
 control
Understanding Main Ideas
21. Describe how the human body shows
the life characteristic of organization.
 It is composed of cells, which are organized
into tissues and organs, which are organized
into body systems
Understanding Main Ideas
22. Explain the relationships among an
organism’s environment, adaptations,
and evolution.

Evolution is the result of organisms
adapting to environmental changes.
Understanding Main Ideas
23. Consider the following items: a flame, bubbles blown
from a bubble wand, and a balloon released into the
air. List characteristics of each that might indicate
life and those that indicate they are not alive.

A flame has energy and may appear to
grow and reproduce. Bubbles blown from
a wand move and may grow. A balloon
released into air moves. These objects
cannot adapt to changes in the
environment or maintain homeostasis.
Understanding Main Ideas
24. Complete the concept map by using
the following vocabulary terms:
experiment, theory, hypothesis, scientific
methods
Read the paragraphs in the
box and answer the question
that follows.
 A biologist named Katharine Payne
visited the elephants at a zoo. She felt
the air around her throbbing like the
rumbling of thunder. When she felt the
air throb, she noticed that the skin on the
foreheads of the elephants moved.
 Also, the elephants seemed to communicate
without making any noise. They did not
make a sound, but they would start and stop
moving at the same time. Payne knew that
some animals, such as whales, made
sounds too low for humans to hear. She
thought, “Maybe elephants, like whales, use
low sounds to communicate with each other.”
Is the research done by
Payne Quantitative or
Descriptive?
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