Chapter 1– part B Biology: The Study of Life QSR #14 Compound Light Microscopes 1. Eyepiece – what you look through (10x) 2. Body tube – tube between the eyepiece and objective lenses 3. Fine adjustment knob – make the last “fine” adjustments 4. Nosepiece – rotating mount that holds the objective lenses 5. objective lens – gathers light from the specimen 5. High power: longer – higher magnification 6. Low power: shorter – lower magnification •7. Diaphragm: regulates the amount of light that enters the •8. Light source: either a mirror or light bulb •9. Base: supports the weight of the microscope •10. Coarse-adjustment knob – big knob used for focusing -should ONLY be used under LOW magnification 11. Arm – holds body tube to the base •Microscope is carried by this •12. Stage clips – holds glass slide in place •13. Stage – Holds the specimen for viewing Electron Microscopes A. Uses a beam of electrons instead of light Can magnify up to 500,000 times B. 2 types 1. Scanning electron microscope Scans across the surface 2. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) Allows you to view INSIDE the speciman QSR #14 – COPY AND FILL IN THE BLANKS!! Characteristics of living things 1.Made of cells Multicellular unicellular 2.Reproduce Sexually vs asexually 3.Change over time 4.Respond to environment (stimulus vs response) 5.Adapt 6.evolve Is a virus living? Viruses are NOT made of cells…. Important terms: Cellular organization Cells, tissues, organs, systems, and organism Metabolism ALL of the chemical processes involved in breaking down or building up materials for energy Homeostasis Maintaining internal conditions that are balanced Ex: pH levels, sugar levels, hormone levels Anything that possesses all of the characteristics of life organism T or F…Reproduction is essential for the survival of all species TRUE!!!! A group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring in nature species liger tigon tigon zorse Mule Stimulus Vs Response A STIMULUS is anything in the environment that requires an organism to adjust/react The adjustment made is the RESPONSE. EX: Sweating in humans is a response to the stimulus of high temperature Adaptation and evolution Adaptation Any structure or behavior that enables an organism to better survive in an environment Ex: Length of a giraffe’s neck Leads to EVOLUTION of the species A change in living things over time QSR #15 Scientific method Observing Making a hypothesis Collecting data Publishing results Forming a theory Developing new hypotheses Revising the theory QSR #4 1. _______ ________s are used to accurately measure the volume of liquids. 2. ________ are used for cutting during dissections. 3. The hottest part of a flame of a bunsen burner is __________________. 4.Other than bunsen burners, ______ _______s can be used to heat liquids inside beakers. The Methods of Biology Observing and Hypothesizing EX: Why do earthworms leave their burrows when it rains? To answer questions, scientists use the Scientific method Id problems to answer by observing hypothesis Explanation for a question or a problem that can be formally tested Must be able to be tested experiment A procedure that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting information under controlled conditions control The group in which all conditions are kept the same Experimental group Aka the test group All conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested Independent variable The condition in an experiment that is changed Also called the manipulated variable Dependent variable As the independent variable changes it causes changes in this Also called the responding variable “MIX DRY” – What does this mean? Data Quantitative vs. qualitative Quantitative describes using numbers Qualitative describes using words Think “quantity vs quality” Give a few examples of each: QSR #15 Theories An “explanation” of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different investigations Continual verification and refinement of a hypothesis Not proven or “FACT” Scientific theory is different from regular theories Laws Facts of nature that generally known to be true Ex: Newton’s Laws of Motion Technological Design… What if you have a new idea or way to improve the quality of human life? Steps for a new technological design: Identify the need → design → implement → evaluate the design IDIE Section Assessment pg. 20 Suppose you made the observation that bees seem to prefer a yellow flower that produces abundant amounts of pollen and nectar over a purple flower that produces less pollen and nectar. List 2 separate hypotheses that you might make about bees and flowers. Students might hypothesize that bees prefer yellow flowers to purple flowers or that bees prefer flowers with more abundant pollen. Describe a controlled experiment you could perform to determine whether ants are more attracted to butter or honey. Set up an experimental chamber. Within a specific amount of time, count and record how many ants move to butter placed a specific distance from the ants. Repeat several times. Repeat using honey in place of the butter. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a testable explanation for a question. A theory is a refined explanation supported by many different experiments. Why do experiments usually require a control? A control provides greater certainty that observed results are not due to chance or other variables. Describe a way that a baker might conduct a controlled experiment with a cookie recipe. Prepare one batch of cookies by following a recipe and another batch of cookies by varying a single variable in the recipe, such as the amount of sugar. Review the Inside Story. What happens when a hypothesis is not confirmed? What does the position of the word theory indicate about the strength of a scientific theory compared to the strength of a hypothesis? A new, revised hypothesis is tested or the experiment may be changed. Theories are supported by the results of a variety of experiments. 1.3 The Nature of Biology Kinds of research Quantitative vs qualatative SI units are used for measuring Consistency Easy changed Based on units of 10 Science and Society Knowledge is not bad. It is society’s intentions that must be considered when knowledge is gained. Ethics– refers to the moral principles and values held by humans Society must be responsible with the knowledge Future of science Can science answer all questions? Can technology solve all problems? Benefits Risks Soil irrigation Section Assessment pg. 25 Why is important that scientific experiments be repeated? To see if the results are repeatable, thus confirming their authenticity Compare and contrast quantitative and descriptive research. Quantitative research reports data in numerical values based on measuring. Descriptive research reports data in written descriptions based on observations. Why is science considered to be a combination of fact and process? A scientist needs a background of knowledge in his or her field. The scientific process increases that knowledge. Why Is technology not the solution to all scientific problems? Some problems do not have a scientific basis. Some technological solutions may pose more problems than they solve. Biomedical research has led to the development of technology that can keep elderly, very ill patients alive. How does the statement “The results of research aren’t good or bad; they just are,” apply to such research. The biomedical researchers sought to increase knoledge. The application of the resulting technology is a question society must answer. Look at the graph in Figure 1-16. Why do you think the hightemperature side of the graph drops off more sharply than the lowtemperature side. Paramecia die above a certain temperature. This results in a rapid drop in numbers once this temperature is reached. They are better able to suvive as low temperatures rise, thus the graph reflects this increased survival. Chapter 1 Assessment pg. 29--31 Main Ideas 1.1 Biology is the organized study of living things and their interactions with the natural and physical environments. All living things have 4 characteristics in common: organization, reproduce, growth and development, and the ability to adjust to the environment Vocabulary 1.1 Adaptation Biology Development Energy Environment Evolution growth Homeostasis Organism Organization Reproduction Response Species stimulus Main Ideas 1.2 Biologists use controlled experiments to obtain data that either do or do not support a hypothesis. By publishing the results and conclusions of an experiment, a scientist allows other to try to verify the results. Repeated verification over time leads to the development of a theory. Vocabulary 1.2 Control Data Dependent variable Experiment hypothesis Independent variable Safety symbols Scientific methods theory Main Ideas 1.3 Biologists do their work in laboratories and in the field. They collect both quantitative and descriptive data from their experiments and investigations. Scientists conduct investigations to increase knowledge about the natural world. Scientific results may help solve some problems, but not all. Vocabulary 1.3 Ethics technology Understanding Main Ideas 1. For experiments to be considered valid, the results must be D. Repeatable 2. Reproduction is an important life characteristic because all living things A. Replace themselves 3. The photograph to the right is an example of which characteristic of life C. development 4. Which of the following is an appropriate scientific question? A. How do paramecia behave when a pond begins to dry up? Understanding Main Ideas 5. 6. If data from repeated experiments do not support the hypothesis, what is the scientist’s next step? 7. 8. B. Revise the hypothesis Similar-liiking organisms, such as dogs showen below, that can interbreed and prdocue fertile offspring are called D. A species The envirnment includes A. Air, water, weather Which of the following terms are most releated to each other C. Adaption-evolution Understanding Main Ideas 9. Which of the following is not an appropriate question for science to consider? B. Which type of orchid flower is most beautiful? 10. The single factor that is altered in an experiment is the D. Independent variable 11. The information gained from an experiment is called data 12. The application of scientific research to society’s needs is technology Understanding Main Ideas 15. An explanation of a 13. A procedure that natural phenomenon tests a hypothesis is with a high degree of an confidence is a experiment theory 14. Processes that 16. The group that is not scientist use to altered in an solve a problem are experiment is called control Scientific methods Understanding Main Ideas 17. The single change in the manipulated group in an experiment is an independent 18. When a horse swats a fly with its tail, the fly is the ____ and the swat of the tail is a _____ Stimulus response 19. The idea that germs are the cause of disease has been continuously supported by experiments and has, therefore, been elevated to the status of a theory 20. The standard group against which others are measured in an experiment is a control Understanding Main Ideas 21. Describe how the human body shows the life characteristic of organization. It is composed of cells, which are organized into tissues and organs, which are organized into body systems Understanding Main Ideas 22. Explain the relationships among an organism’s environment, adaptations, and evolution. Evolution is the result of organisms adapting to environmental changes. Understanding Main Ideas 23. Consider the following items: a flame, bubbles blown from a bubble wand, and a balloon released into the air. List characteristics of each that might indicate life and those that indicate they are not alive. A flame has energy and may appear to grow and reproduce. Bubbles blown from a wand move and may grow. A balloon released into air moves. These objects cannot adapt to changes in the environment or maintain homeostasis. Understanding Main Ideas 24. Complete the concept map by using the following vocabulary terms: experiment, theory, hypothesis, scientific methods Read the paragraphs in the box and answer the question that follows. A biologist named Katharine Payne visited the elephants at a zoo. She felt the air around her throbbing like the rumbling of thunder. When she felt the air throb, she noticed that the skin on the foreheads of the elephants moved. Also, the elephants seemed to communicate without making any noise. They did not make a sound, but they would start and stop moving at the same time. Payne knew that some animals, such as whales, made sounds too low for humans to hear. She thought, “Maybe elephants, like whales, use low sounds to communicate with each other.” Is the research done by Payne Quantitative or Descriptive?