3 Historic Settlement - geo

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CHAPTER
3
Historical
Settlement
Lecture Outline
Innisfree McKinnon
University of Oregon
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter Sections
•
•
•
•
Exploration & Discovery
Expansion & Settlement
Economic Development & Urbanization
Evolving Immigration Patterns & Issues
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Learning Objectives (Exploration &
Discovery)
• Theory of first effective settlement
• Native settlement patterns in the U.S. &
Canada
• Long term impacts of indigenous people
• Triangular trade
• Early Atlantic settlement patterns
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Learning Objectives (Expansion &
Settlement)
• 4 Cultural Hearths
• Settlement Regulation
– Homestead Act, Donation Land Claim Act,
Preemption Act
• Land survey systems
• Spanish settlement patterns in the SW
• Acadian forced migration
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Learning Objectives
• Economic Development & Urbanization
– Advantages of port cities
– Erie Canal & the development of NY city
• Evolving Immigration Patterns & Issues
– The Great Migration
– U.S. immigration policies
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First Effective Settlement
• Geographer Wilbur Zelinsky
• The groups who successfully settled a
place first had the longest impacts
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First Peoples Migration Patterns
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Native settlement patterns
• Many different native cultures, lifestyles
• Dense pop. in CA, PNW, SE U.S.
• Some cities >30,000
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European exploration & imperialism
• Imperialism
• Donald Meinig:
• "The aggressive
encroachment of one
people upon the territory
of another, resulting in
the subjugation of the
latter people to alien
rule."
• >4 centuries of
domination
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Slave Trade & African force migration
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French Settlement
• St. Lawrence River
• Montreal founded
1642
• Fur traders
• By late 1600s >
10,000 farms
• Settlement expanded
to Great Lakes,
Mississippi & Ohio
rivers
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French settlement
• Long lot system
• Allowed access to river
• Acadians forced to migrate from Nova
Scotia to New Orleans (Cajuns)
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Russian settlement
• Aleutian Island, Alaska, and south to CA
• Competition w/American & British trappers
for furs
• Sold N. American territory to U.S. in 1867
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Latin America
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Spanish Settlement
• Laws of the Indies 1573
– Guided settlement
development
• Land grants
– Pueblos, villas, and
ciudades
– Ranchos, colonias
– Large, rectangular land
grants
• Evidence of Spanish
settlement remains
–
–
–
–
Spanish language
Architecture
Missions
Central plazas in S.W.
towns
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Dutch Settlement
• Dutch East India
Company
• Merchants set up
trade networks
• Settlement focused
on Connecticut,
Delaware, & Hudson
River valleys
• New Amsterdam –
Manhattan Island
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British Settlement
• Jamestown, 1607
• Puritans – Plymouth, 1620
• English Quaker, William Penn
– established Pennsylvania
• Metes & bounds land grant system
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Early immigrant patterns
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Ongoing Migration, Expansion, and
Settlement
• European expansion starts from:
• U.S.
– S. New England (Boston)
– Middle Colonies (Philadelphia)
– S. of the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia & Georgia)
• Canada
– English domination expands west
• Spanish
– Expanded from Mexico city N. to Florida, New
Mexico, & Texas
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Major Cultural Hearths
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Territorial Acquisitions
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U.S. land survey system
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Township & Range system
• Northwest Land
Ordinance, 1785
• Thomas Jefferson
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Laws encouraging settlement
• Homestead Act
• Preemption Act of 1841
• Dawes Act – encouraged individual
ownership by Native Americans
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Evolving Economic Development &
Urbanization
• Eastern cities
– Ports
– Centers of trade
– Connected hinterlands to European markets
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Transcontinental Railroad
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The Great Migration
•
•
•
•
1920s
African American families
From the U.S. South
To industrial jobs in Midwest, Northeast,
West
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Settlement of ethnic groups
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Anti-immigration legislation
• Canada
– Chinese Head Tax
– Chinese Immigration Act
• U.S.
– Asian Exclusion Act
– National Origins Quota Acts 1921, 11924
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Immigration Reforms
• 1952 Immigration & Nationality Act
– Expanded # of refugees allowed to immigrate
• 1965 Immigration Act
– Repealed quota system
– Band discrimination against Asians
• Canada
– Reforms in the 1960s
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Post 1980s Immigration
•
•
•
•
Globalization
Rural-urban migration
Brain drain to N. America
Suburban settlement of immigrants
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End of Chapter 3
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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