Receptacles Nightmare at about a foot and a half (with apologies to The Twilight Zone and William Shatner) • Receptacles • Tamper Resistant • GFCI • AFCI • Controlled by Dimmers • Controlled by energy management systems Receptacles- Tamper Resistant • Receptacles- Tamper Resistant Tamper Resistant Receptacles first appeared in the National Electrical Code (NEC, or Code)in 1981 for pediatric wards in hospitals. In 1984 the requirement for them was expanded to psychiatric wards. In 1993, the requirement to use them in psychiatric wards was dropped. • Receptacles- Tamper Resistant In 2008 the NEC started requiring Tamper Resistant receptacles to be used in: •Dwellings •Guest Rooms/Suites •Child Care Facilities • Receptacles- Tamper Resistant The substantiation showed that there had been 24,000 visits to emergency rooms, over a ten year period, by children who had been shocked by inserting items into receptacles. The shutters stay closed until there is equal pressure applied to both of them at the same time. • Receptacles • Tamper Resistant • GFCI • • • AFCI Controlled by Dimmers Controlled by energy management systems • Receptacles • GFCI - Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Should be called a Current Imbalance Detector Notice that current does not go to ground, but there might be a path through ground to get back to the source. In 2008, the definition of “Ground” was changed to “The Earth” The text above “..current to ground…” is as it appears in Article 100 of the Code. It should say “…when the imbalance current has a value…” In fact, 406.4(D) allows non-grounding receptacles (two-prong) to be replaced with GFCI receptacles. The sticker “no equipment ground” shall be applied. • Receptacles • • Tamper Resistant GFCI • AFCI • • Controlled by Dimmers Controlled by energy management systems • Receptacles • AFCI - Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter AFCIs first appeared in the 1999 Code. At that time, it stated that AFCIs would be required in dwelling unit bedrooms and that the requirement would become effective on 1.Jan.2002 As of the 2014 Code, they are required on the majority of 120 Volt, 15 and 20 Ampere circuits in dwellings. An “outlet” is “a point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.” So the wires in a junction box above a light fixture is the lighting “outlet.” An AFCI circuit breaker. Until very recently, AFCI protection was only available with circuit breakers It is now available in receptacles but, for all practical purposes, the Code only allows AFCI receptacles as replacements. Note the Tamper Resistant shutters. AFCI circuit breaker Arc Fault with standard breaker upstream Arc Fault with AFCI breaker upstream • Receptacles • • • Tamper Proof GFCI AFCI • Controlled by Dimmers • Controlled by energy management systems 406.15 Dimmer-Controlled Receptacles. A receptacle supplying lighting loads shall not be connected to a dimmer unless the plug/receptacle combination is a nonstandard configuration type that is specifically listed and installed for each such unique configuration. The lamp/fixture being plugged in to the dimming receptacle must have its factory cord cap removed and replaced with a cord cap that matches the rejection receptacle. • Receptacles • • • • Tamper Proof GFCI AFCI Controlled by Dimmers • Controlled by energy management systems I only bring this up as an awareness issue. Perhaps, one day, you’ll be working for a facility that has these and someone will wonder why the clock, or refrigerator, keeps turning off on the weekends. Questions?