Tunka Manin - tmsteam742

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CHAPTER 13 - EARLY AFRICAN CIVILIZTIONS
Section 2 - The Empire of Ghana - Page 386 - 389
BIG IDEA
The rulers of
Ghana built
an
Geography,
resources,
culture, and
an
empire
by bythe growth of
trade
influenced
societies in
West Africa.
controlling
the
salt and gold
trade.
VOCABULARY
-Silent Barter
-Tribute
-Tunka Manin
GHANA CONTROLS TRADE
MAIN IDEA
Ghana
controlled
t
Geography,
resources,
culture, and
trade
and the growth of
trade
influenced
becamein West Africa.
societies
wealthy.
Earliest group of
people living in
West Africa were
the Soninke
(soh-NING-kee).
They lived in small groups and
farmed near the Niger.
After AD300 the Soninke banded together
for protection against nomadic herders who
wanted to move into the area
take their land.
This
banding
together
was the
start of
the
country
of
Ghana.
People of Ghana slowly became
stronger.
They learned how
to work with iron
and make iron
tools.
They also herded cattle for meat and
milk.
Since farmers
and herders
could produce
plenty of food
(SURPLUS) =
population increased and many towns
and villages sprang up.
Ghana lays between the Sahara
to the North and deep forests
that spread out to the South.
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
This location put these people in a good
position to trade in the region’s two main
resources – gold and salt.
SALT
GOLD
The exchange of gold
and salt sometimes
followed a specific
process call Silent
Barter.
SILENT BARTER
A process in which people exchange goods
without contacting each other directly
In Ghana, salt traders left slabs of salt on a
riverbank. In exchange, gold miners left
what they thought was a fair amount of gold.
This method
made sure
that trade was
done
peacefully.
It also kept
the location of
the gold
mines secret.
As trade increased, Ghana’s rulers gained
power. They built armies equipped with
iron weapons that were superior to the
weapons of nearby peoples.
Over time, Ghana took over control of
trade from North African merchants.
Then additional goods were added to the
list of items traded -Wheat (from up north),
sheep, cattle, and honey (from the south).
Local products like leather and
cloth were also traded.
Before long,
extensive trade
made Ghana
very prosperous.
How did
trade help
Ghana
develop?
(GENERALIZING)
Can you also answer these questions?
A. What were the two major resources traded in Ghana?
(IDENTIFY)
B. How did the silent barter system work? (EXPLAIN)
C. Where was the ancient empire of Ghana located? (RECALL)
D. How did early Soninke farmers create a strong state?
(EXPLAIN)
E. What was the silent barter of gold and salt?
(SUMMARIZE)
GHANA BUILDS AN
EMPIRE
MAIN IDEA
Through
its
Geography, resources, culture, and
control
of tr the growth of
trade
influenced
Trade,
Ghana
societies
in West Africa.
built an empire.
By 800, Ghana was in control of
West Africa’s trade routes.
Nearly
ALL trade
between
northern
and
southern
Africa
passed
through
Ghana.
Ghana’s army kept the trade
routes safe.
As trade
increased, so
did Ghana’s
wealth.
TAXES AND GOLD
TAXES
With so many traders passing through their lands,
Ghana’s rulers looked for ways to profit from these
dealings. So they………
#1 -They
forced
every
trader who
entered
Ghana to
pay a
special tax
on the
good he
carried.
#2 -Traders
also had
to pay
another
tax on
goods
that they
took with
them
when
they left
Ghana.
#3 -- The People of Ghana had to
pay taxes too.
#4 -- Ghana forced small
neighboring tribes to pay tribute
in the form of - GOLD.
TRIBUTE
A stated sum or
other valuable
(gold) paid by one
state, sovereign or
region to another
in acknowledgment
for their control
(power) as the
price for peace,
security,
protection, etc.
Gold brought even
more income into
the royal treasury.
Some of
this gold
was carried by
traders to places as
far away as
England.
However, not all of the gold was
traded .
Ghana’s kings also kept huge
stores of precious metal for
themselves.
The rulers of Ghana also banned
everyone else in Ghana from owning gold
nuggets.
Common people could only own
gold dust, which they used as
money. This ensured that the king
was richer than his subjects.
EXPANSION OF THE
EMPIRE
Part of Ghana’s wealth went to
support its powerful army.
Ghana’s kings used this army to
conquer many neighboring areas.
To keep order, Ghana’s kings allowed
conquered rulers to retain much of their
power.
KING
Conquered ruler act
as governor of the land
that you already lived on.
These local rulers acted as governors of
their territories, answering only to the king.
The Empire of Ghana reached its
peak under Tunka Manin
(TOOHN-kah MAH-nin).
This king
had a
lavish
court
where
he
displayed
the
wealth
of the
empire.
TUNKA MANIN
King of Ghana, had a lavish court to
display the wealth of the empire
Tunka Manin
King of Ghana who ruled about 1068
All we know about Tunka Manin comes from the writings
of a Muslim geographer who wrote about Ghana.
Tunka Manin was the nephew
of the previous king, a man
named Basi. Kingship and
property in Ghana did not
pass from father to son, but
from uncle to nephew. Only
the king’s sister’s son could
inherit the throne. Once he
did become king, Tunka
Manin surrounded
himself with finery and many
luxuries.
A Spanish writer noted…
“The king adorns
himself….round his
neck and his forearms,
and he puts on a high
cap decorated with gold
and wrapped in a
turban of fine cotton.
Behind the king stand
ten pages (servants)
holding shields and
swords decorated with
gold.”
How did the
rulers of
Ghana
control
trade?
(SUMMARIZING)
Can you also answer these questions?
A. Who was Tunka Manin? (IDENTIFY)
B. . What did Ghana’s kings do with the money they raised
from taxes and gold mining? (GENERALIZE)
C. Why did the rulers of Ghana not want everyone to
have gold? (ELABORATE)
D. How did Ghana’s rulers raise money? (RECALL)
E. How did Ghana’s rulers acquire huge amounts of gold?
(ANALYZE)
F. Do you think trade was safer when Ghana controlled it?
(EVALUATE)
GHANA’S DECLINE
MAIN IDEA
Ghana’s decline
was
caused
Geography, resources, culture, and
by attacking
trade
influenced the growth of
invaders,in West Africa.
societies
overgrazing, and
the loss of trade.
In the mid-1000’s, Ghana was rich
and powerful.
But, by the early 1200’s, their
empire had collapsed – three major
factors contributed to its end.
.
1.) INVASION
INVASION – The first factor that hurt Ghana was
invasion. A group of North Africa Muslims called
the Almoravids (al-moh-RAH-vidz) attacked Ghana
in the 1060’s. After 14 years of fighting the
Almoravids defeated the people of Ghana.
.
The Almoravids didn’t control
Ghana for long, but they weakened
the empire.
.
However, the Almoravids did cut off
many trade routes and formed new trading
partnerships with Muslim leaders.
.
Without this
trade, Ghana
could not
support its
empire.
2.) OVERGRAZING
A second factor in Ghana’s decline also involved the Almoravids.
These invaders brought herds of animals
with them. These animals ate all the grass
in many pastures, leaving the soil exposed
to hot desert winds.
.
These winds blew away the soil,
leaving it worthless for farming or
herding. Many farmers had to leave in
search of new homes.
.
3.) INTERNAL REBELLION
In about 1200,
the people of
the country that
Ghana had
conquered rose
up in rebellion.
Within a few
years, these
rebels had
taken over the
entire empire of
Ghana.
.
.
Once in control, the rebels found that
they could not keep order. Weakened,
Ghana was attacked and defeated by
one of its neighbors. The empire fell
apart.
Why did
Ghana
decline in
the AD
1000s?
(IDENTIFYING
CAUSE AND
EFFECT)
Can you also answer these questions?
A. What group invaded Ghana in the late 1000s? (RECALL)
B. How did overgrazing help cause the fall of Ghana?
(ANALYZE)
C. What group attacked Ghana in the 1060’s and what
effect did the attack have? (RECALL)
D. What was the significance of overgrazing?
(DRAWCONCLUSIONS)
E. What do you think people rebelled in about 1200?
(MAKE JUDGEMENTS)
Summarize –
What did
you learn
about the
Empire of
Ghana – the
good, the bad
and the trade.
How did gold and
salt impact this?
Content for this presentation
was gotten from:
"Early African Civilizations."
World History. : Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Company, 2012. . Print.
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