CHAPTER 13 - EARLY AFRICAN CIVILIZTIONS Section 2 - The Empire of Ghana - Page 386 - 389 BIG IDEA The rulers of Ghana built an Geography, resources, culture, and an empire by bythe growth of trade influenced societies in West Africa. controlling the salt and gold trade. VOCABULARY -Silent Barter -Tribute -Tunka Manin GHANA CONTROLS TRADE MAIN IDEA Ghana controlled t Geography, resources, culture, and trade and the growth of trade influenced becamein West Africa. societies wealthy. Earliest group of people living in West Africa were the Soninke (soh-NING-kee). They lived in small groups and farmed near the Niger. After AD300 the Soninke banded together for protection against nomadic herders who wanted to move into the area take their land. This banding together was the start of the country of Ghana. People of Ghana slowly became stronger. They learned how to work with iron and make iron tools. They also herded cattle for meat and milk. Since farmers and herders could produce plenty of food (SURPLUS) = population increased and many towns and villages sprang up. Ghana lays between the Sahara to the North and deep forests that spread out to the South. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. This location put these people in a good position to trade in the region’s two main resources – gold and salt. SALT GOLD The exchange of gold and salt sometimes followed a specific process call Silent Barter. SILENT BARTER A process in which people exchange goods without contacting each other directly In Ghana, salt traders left slabs of salt on a riverbank. In exchange, gold miners left what they thought was a fair amount of gold. This method made sure that trade was done peacefully. It also kept the location of the gold mines secret. As trade increased, Ghana’s rulers gained power. They built armies equipped with iron weapons that were superior to the weapons of nearby peoples. Over time, Ghana took over control of trade from North African merchants. Then additional goods were added to the list of items traded -Wheat (from up north), sheep, cattle, and honey (from the south). Local products like leather and cloth were also traded. Before long, extensive trade made Ghana very prosperous. How did trade help Ghana develop? (GENERALIZING) Can you also answer these questions? A. What were the two major resources traded in Ghana? (IDENTIFY) B. How did the silent barter system work? (EXPLAIN) C. Where was the ancient empire of Ghana located? (RECALL) D. How did early Soninke farmers create a strong state? (EXPLAIN) E. What was the silent barter of gold and salt? (SUMMARIZE) GHANA BUILDS AN EMPIRE MAIN IDEA Through its Geography, resources, culture, and control of tr the growth of trade influenced Trade, Ghana societies in West Africa. built an empire. By 800, Ghana was in control of West Africa’s trade routes. Nearly ALL trade between northern and southern Africa passed through Ghana. Ghana’s army kept the trade routes safe. As trade increased, so did Ghana’s wealth. TAXES AND GOLD TAXES With so many traders passing through their lands, Ghana’s rulers looked for ways to profit from these dealings. So they……… #1 -They forced every trader who entered Ghana to pay a special tax on the good he carried. #2 -Traders also had to pay another tax on goods that they took with them when they left Ghana. #3 -- The People of Ghana had to pay taxes too. #4 -- Ghana forced small neighboring tribes to pay tribute in the form of - GOLD. TRIBUTE A stated sum or other valuable (gold) paid by one state, sovereign or region to another in acknowledgment for their control (power) as the price for peace, security, protection, etc. Gold brought even more income into the royal treasury. Some of this gold was carried by traders to places as far away as England. However, not all of the gold was traded . Ghana’s kings also kept huge stores of precious metal for themselves. The rulers of Ghana also banned everyone else in Ghana from owning gold nuggets. Common people could only own gold dust, which they used as money. This ensured that the king was richer than his subjects. EXPANSION OF THE EMPIRE Part of Ghana’s wealth went to support its powerful army. Ghana’s kings used this army to conquer many neighboring areas. To keep order, Ghana’s kings allowed conquered rulers to retain much of their power. KING Conquered ruler act as governor of the land that you already lived on. These local rulers acted as governors of their territories, answering only to the king. The Empire of Ghana reached its peak under Tunka Manin (TOOHN-kah MAH-nin). This king had a lavish court where he displayed the wealth of the empire. TUNKA MANIN King of Ghana, had a lavish court to display the wealth of the empire Tunka Manin King of Ghana who ruled about 1068 All we know about Tunka Manin comes from the writings of a Muslim geographer who wrote about Ghana. Tunka Manin was the nephew of the previous king, a man named Basi. Kingship and property in Ghana did not pass from father to son, but from uncle to nephew. Only the king’s sister’s son could inherit the throne. Once he did become king, Tunka Manin surrounded himself with finery and many luxuries. A Spanish writer noted… “The king adorns himself….round his neck and his forearms, and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton. Behind the king stand ten pages (servants) holding shields and swords decorated with gold.” How did the rulers of Ghana control trade? (SUMMARIZING) Can you also answer these questions? A. Who was Tunka Manin? (IDENTIFY) B. . What did Ghana’s kings do with the money they raised from taxes and gold mining? (GENERALIZE) C. Why did the rulers of Ghana not want everyone to have gold? (ELABORATE) D. How did Ghana’s rulers raise money? (RECALL) E. How did Ghana’s rulers acquire huge amounts of gold? (ANALYZE) F. Do you think trade was safer when Ghana controlled it? (EVALUATE) GHANA’S DECLINE MAIN IDEA Ghana’s decline was caused Geography, resources, culture, and by attacking trade influenced the growth of invaders,in West Africa. societies overgrazing, and the loss of trade. In the mid-1000’s, Ghana was rich and powerful. But, by the early 1200’s, their empire had collapsed – three major factors contributed to its end. . 1.) INVASION INVASION – The first factor that hurt Ghana was invasion. A group of North Africa Muslims called the Almoravids (al-moh-RAH-vidz) attacked Ghana in the 1060’s. After 14 years of fighting the Almoravids defeated the people of Ghana. . The Almoravids didn’t control Ghana for long, but they weakened the empire. . However, the Almoravids did cut off many trade routes and formed new trading partnerships with Muslim leaders. . Without this trade, Ghana could not support its empire. 2.) OVERGRAZING A second factor in Ghana’s decline also involved the Almoravids. These invaders brought herds of animals with them. These animals ate all the grass in many pastures, leaving the soil exposed to hot desert winds. . These winds blew away the soil, leaving it worthless for farming or herding. Many farmers had to leave in search of new homes. . 3.) INTERNAL REBELLION In about 1200, the people of the country that Ghana had conquered rose up in rebellion. Within a few years, these rebels had taken over the entire empire of Ghana. . . Once in control, the rebels found that they could not keep order. Weakened, Ghana was attacked and defeated by one of its neighbors. The empire fell apart. Why did Ghana decline in the AD 1000s? (IDENTIFYING CAUSE AND EFFECT) Can you also answer these questions? A. What group invaded Ghana in the late 1000s? (RECALL) B. How did overgrazing help cause the fall of Ghana? (ANALYZE) C. What group attacked Ghana in the 1060’s and what effect did the attack have? (RECALL) D. What was the significance of overgrazing? (DRAWCONCLUSIONS) E. What do you think people rebelled in about 1200? (MAKE JUDGEMENTS) Summarize – What did you learn about the Empire of Ghana – the good, the bad and the trade. How did gold and salt impact this? Content for this presentation was gotten from: "Early African Civilizations." World History. : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2012. . Print.