Ecology AP Readiness

advertisement
Ecology AP Readiness
Mr. Snider
Sherman Oaks CES
socesbio.com – download this ppt
Topics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Biotic and Abiotic factors
Wind circulation
Biomes
Ecological succession
Food Chain vs Web
Energy Pyramid
Primary productivity
Growth, K –r selection
Cycles – N C O H2O
Predator / Prey
• Past essays
–
–
–
–
2010 A + B
2009 A
2008 A (2) + B
2007 A + B
Biotic and Abiotic factors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Biotic – Living Abiotic - Nonliving
Plant – Producers Primary importance
Fungus Bacteria – Decomposers 2 imp.
Animal – Consumers 3 imp.
Temperature - average & range
Rainfall – average and monthly
Soil type – thick, thin, material
Sunlight – direct, length of day (season)
2010 B
Why do deserts form?
• Cool dry air moves down, expands,
absorbs moisture
• Driven by global wind circulation
• Also mountain affects –
Sonora, Gobi
Climatograph
2 data sets – 1 temperature (C);
1 rainfall (mm)
Different graphs have different scales - Caution
Desert
•
•
•
•
Less than 30 cm rain
Cold or Warm (30ͦ )
Cacti, succulents
Hawks, snakes,
lizards
• Scorpions, rodents
Rainforest – Tropical
• Broadleaf evergreen,
epiphytes: orchids,
bromeliads
• Rainfall over 200-400 cm
• Temp - hot 25-29 C
• Big cat, big snake,
colorful birds, primate
Most diverse
• Thin soil – nutrients in
plants
• Near equator – 12 hr sun,
daily afternoon rain
Rainforest – Tropical Dry
•
•
•
•
Rain 150-200 cm
Temp 25-29 C
Seasonal dry, wet
Monsoons –heavy
seasonal rains
• India
• Tiger, Asian elephant
Savanna – tropical grassland
• Low rain 30-50 cm
• Short wet winter, long
dry summer
• Fire renewed
• Grasses, shrub,
acacia & boabab tree
• Lions, cheetah, zebra,
hyena, elephant
(Lion King)
• Thick soil
Chaparral- Mediterranean Shrub
• Long dry summer, Short
wet winter
• Fire renewed
• Temperate
• Low rain 30-50 cm
• Herby plants, shrubs,
small trees
• Deer, goat, birds, insect,
amphibians, reptiles
• Us- SoCal
Temperate grassland – Prairie, steppes
• Seasonal temp– cold
winters, hot summers
• Seasonal rain, high
summer, wet winter
• Grass, forbs
• Fire renewed
• Buffalo, horse, deer,
antelope (O Give me)
• Burrowers – prairie dog
• Deep, fertile soil
Temperate broadleaf forest
• Cold winters, warm
summers
• Seasonal rains
• Fertile soil
• Maple, Oak, beech
trees
• Deer, bears,
wolverines
Northern coniferous forest - Taiga
• Long cold winter,
short summer
• Low precipitation
• Fir, Spruce
• Deer, bear
Tundra (+ Alpine)
• Permafrost layer
• Caribou, reindeer,
arctic – fox, owl, wolf,
lemmings
• Mosses, grasses
• Very low precipitation
• Dark 3 months of year
Succesion
• Pioneer orgainism – lichen
• Primary – lichen, moss, grass, shrub,
conifer, hardwood
• Secondary – Fire: return to grasses
– Ex. Mt. St Helens
• Pond – buildup, convert to swamp then
grassland
2008 A
Chain vs web
• Food chain – simple: who eats who
• Food web – complicated: who everone is
related to; if weighted, arrows different
thicknesses
• Reality – web; testable - chain
Energy Pyramid
~ 10% added to next level as
biomass
~ 90% lost to environment
as heat
Not all at once, each
process, enzyme,
mechanical energy loses up
to 80%
Origin of Energy – Sun ?%
Vocab
• Autotroph – own
energy
• Heterotroph – other
energy
Internal – animal
External – fungus
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Producer
Consumer (levels below)
Decomposer
Herbivore – plant only
Omnivore – both
Carnivore – meat only
Saprobe – decomposer
2009 A
2007 A
Compared with other terrestrial biomes, deserts have extremely low productivity.
(a) Discuss how temperature, soil composition and annual precipitation limit
productivity in deserts
(b) Describe a four organism food chain that might characterize a desert
community, and identify the trophic level of each organism
(c) Describe the results depicted in the graph. Explain one anatomical
difference and one physiological difference between species A and B that
account for the CO2 uptake patterns shown. Discuss the evolutionary
significance of each difference.
2007 B
The energy flow in ecosystems is based on the primary productivity of autotrophs
(a) Discuss the energy flow through an ecosystem and the relative efficiency with
which it occurs
(b) Discuss the impact of the following on energy flow on a global scale.
(a) Deforestation
(b) Global climate change
K = carrying capaciity exponential growth in middle
Populations
• P=I+B-E-D
• Populations= Immigration + BirthEmigration-Death
• Be able to calculate rates
• Ex. What is the population after 5 years if
the initial population is 5000 flying
monkeys, the birth rate is 1/250 monkey
per year, death rate is 1/500 monkeys per
year, immigration is 10 monkeys per year
and emigration is 50 monkies to Oz?
Long lived
Parental care common
Fewer offspring
Narrow distribution
Delayed reproduction
Short lived
Little parental care
Many offspring
Wide distribution
Rapid reproduction
R
K
Answer is 4850 flying monkeys – run away
2008 A
Dissolved O2 saturation graph
Higher temp=
lower saturation
How to suffocate
a fish w/o
removing O2
directly – heat
the water
2008 B
Nitrogen Cycle – Bacteria rock
Carbon Cycle
Water cycle
Delayed increase due to
reproduction and delayed
decrease due to starvation
Predator prey
Download
Related flashcards

Japanese cuisine

27 cards

Sauces

41 cards

Agronomy

25 cards

Agriculture

34 cards

Asian cuisine

18 cards

Create Flashcards