Type III Vehicle Pre-Trip - PennDOT Driver and Vehicle Services

School Bus Driver Training
Unit E
Preventive Maintenance
 At the end of this session school bus operators will
be able to:
 Identify and describe basic procedures involved in
normal daily pre-trip, on-the-road, and post-trip
 Detect impending vehicle defects and know how to
report them in a meaningful manner
 Recognize common driving errors or abuses that
cause excessive component wear
 Employ proper driving habits to prolong the life of
the bus
Importance of Preventive
 Minimizes bus failures and costs
 Maximizes SAFETY, comfort, and level of service
School Bus Driver’s Role?
 Pre-trip Inspection
 Operational Inspection
 Detect problems, don’t fix them
 Practice good driving habits
 Post-trip Inspection
 Communication
 Problems cannot be repaired if they are not reported
Pre-trip Inspection
 Purpose: Identify problems that could cause a crash
or breakdown
 Develop a routine
Vehicle overview
Engine compartment inspection
Inside bus inspection
Outside bus inspection (walk around)
Brake test
What Do You Need?
 Checklist
 Rags/paper towels
 Cleaners
 Work gloves
 At least 15 minutes
 Federal regulations require that before driving your
bus that you:
 Be satisfied that it is in safe operating condition;
 Review the last driver vehicle inspection report; and
 Sign the report, only if defects or deficiencies were
noted by the driver who prepared the report, to
acknowledge that the driver has reviewed it and that
there is a certification that the required repairs have
been performed.
Basic Pre-trip Inspection
Vehicle Overview
Engine Compartment Inspection
Inside Bus Inspection
Outside Bus Inspection (Walk around)
Check Brake System
1. 1. Vehicle Overview
Refer to Figure E-1 in
Publication 117
1. 1. Vehicle Overview
 Check for leaks
 Check for previous problems
 Check for obstructions
2. Engine Compartment Inspection
Engine Compartment Inspection
 Recommended start: engine cool, fluids stable
 Ensure the parking brake is on and/or wheels
Oil level
Coolant level and hoses
Power steering level and hoses
Windshield washer fluid level
Battery fluid level, connections and tie downs
Automatic transmission fluid level
Wiring insulation
Under the Hood
 Belts: tightness and excessive wear
 Alternator
 Water pump
 Air compressor
 Leaks
 Fuel
 Coolant
 Oil
 Power steering fluid
 Hydraulic fluid
 Brake fluid
 Windshield washer
 Battery fluid
 Automatic transmission fluid
Check Oil
 Check daily before you start your trip
 Most vehicles will have the oil cap clearly marked
 The oil on the stick will indicate if the oil level is low
 Fill with oil to the designated full line if it is low
 Never leave the garage if your oil level is low
Remove Oil Dipstick and Check
Fluid Level
Wipe fluid off, re-insert dipstick and
look again to determine oil level
Check Oil Level Daily
Locations the Oil Filler Cap and
Dip Stick Locations Vary
Check Belts
Check Washer Fluid Level
Check Other Fluid Levels as
Check Battery
Inspect Inside of Bus
 Driver Compartment
 Passenger Entry
 Passenger
Start Engine for Inside Bus
 Parking brake on!
 Put engine in neutral
 Turn off heaters
 Start engine
 Use your ears for unusual engine noise
 For diesels, make sure injector pump is engaged
Driver Compartment
 Check all gauges
 Oil pressure
 Ammeter/voltmeter
 Coolant temperature
 No warning lights should be on
 Vacuum gauge (if applicable)
 Fuel gauge
 Air gauge
Check that All Gauges Function
Driver Compartment
 Check all controls
 Steering wheel
 Clutch
 Accelerator
 Brakes (and brake pressure)
 Horn
 All lights and signals
 Wipers operate properly
 Washer fluid operates properly
Check Controls
Driver Compartment
 Check all lights
 Headlights
 Dimmer switch
 Turn signals
 Four-way flashers
 Clearance, identification, marker lights
 Eight-ways
 Strobe (if applicable)
Check Lights
Check and Adjust Mirrors
 Clean
 Adjusted
 Maximize viewing area
Adjust Left and Right Flat Mirrors
Adjust Convex Mirrors
Look at Both!
Adjust Left and Right
Cross View Mirrors
Left Cross View Mirror
Right Cross View Mirror
Adjust Inside Rearview Mirror
Passenger Entry
 Service doors
 Stairwell
 Handrail
Passenger Compartment
 Interior walk through
 Emergency door
 Other emergency exits
 Bus emergency equipment
Interior Walk Through
Rear Emergency Door and Other
Emergency Exits
On-Board School Bus
Safety Equipment
 Spare electrical fuses (if applicable)
 Portable emergency warning devices
 First aid kit
 Body fluid clean up kit
 Properly charged and rated fire extinguisher
 Pry bar
 Emergency phone numbers
 Crash reporting packet
 Seat belt cutter (optional)
On-Board School Bus
Safety Equipment
 Ensure that if you use any safety equipment you
replace it or notify a supervisor to have it replaced
 Be sure that all equipment is stored safely and
Check Emergency Equipment
Body fluid clean up kit
First aid kit
Fully charged fire
Warning Devices
Properly Secure Equipment
Remaining Items Inside
the Vehicle
 Check that seat belts operate properly
 Check defrost and heater fans
 Check that windows are clean
 General cleanliness
 When complete, turn on all your lights!
Outside Bus Inspection
(Walk around)
 Tires Wheels and Rims
 Walk around
 Check all lights
 Headlights
 Eight-ways
 Side marker lights
 Brake and backup lights
 Strobe (if applicable)
 Check under bus
Tires, Wheels, and Rims
Always Check the Tread Depth
Front tires: 4/32 inch
Rear tires: 2/32 inch
Edge of coin to
top of head 4/32”
Check Tires
Right Front and Side
 Mirror
 Front wheel
 Front suspension
 Crossing arm control
 Brake
 Front Axle
 Steering system
 Windshield
 Lights and reflectors
Red Flashing Lights
Amber Flashing Lights
Turn Signal Lights
Crossing Control Arm
Turn Signal Lights
Right Front and Side
Clearance Lights
Side Windows
Fuel Cap
Rear Emergency
Tires, Wheels, Lug Nuts
Service Door
Left Front and Side
 Same as right front
 Left side stop arm and wing guard
 Fender and crossover mirrors
 Fuel tank(s)
 Battery check
 Other visible parts
Left Front and Side
Windshield and Wipers
Clearance Lights
Engine Compartment
Side Stop Arm
Tires, Wheels, Lug Nuts
Check that Fuel Cap is
On and Secure
Left and Right Rear
 Lights and reflectors
 License plate
 Splash guards
 Rear emergency door
 Suspension and brakes
 Exhaust
Red Marker Lights
Red Flashing Lights
Amber Flashing Lights
Red Marker Lights
Brake Lights
Brake Lights
Turn Signals
(Hazard Warning
Turn Signals
(Hazard Warning
Tail Lights
Tail Lights
Red Marker Lights
Back-up Lights
Check Rear Emergency Door
5. Check Brake System
 Parking brake
 Service brakes
 Hydraulic brake test
 Air brakes*
* Refer to Sections 5 and
10 of the CDL Manual
Automatic Brake Adjusters
 Should not have to be manually adjusted
 Manual adjustment masks a mechanical problem,
it does not fix it!
 Report ASAs that are out of adjustment to your
Finish your Pre-trip
 Turn off lights
 Secure loose items
 Fill out paperwork
What if I find something wrong during the pre-trip
 Symptoms
 Dripping trail or puddle under engine
 Liquid is thick, wet, yellow-green
 Increasing engine temperature
 Problem?
 What do you do?
 Symptoms
 Dripping trail or puddle under engine
 Liquid is thick, dark brown to black
 Noisy engine
 Increasing engine temperature
 Problem?
 What do you do?
Operational Preventive
 Also known as on-the road or in-service preventive
 Detecting unusual vehicle behavior
 Good driving habits for maintenance
 Use your senses!!
Detecting Abnormal Vehicle
 Continuously check gauges
 Check parking brake
 Check service brakes
 Air brakes
 Hydraulic brakes
 Check transmission
 Check steering
 Check suspension
 Check engine
 Check tires
Detecting Abnormal Vehicle
 Be familiar with your bus
 Use ALL senses: Sight, Sound, Smell, Touch
 Normal gauge readings
 Feel of ride
 Sounds
 Pre-existing problems?
Detecting Abnormal Vehicle
 Anything loose, weakening, broken, leaking?
 Anything look/seem different than usual?
 Problems that are increasing noticeably with time?
 Trace to the source
 Check for related problems
Good Driving Habits for
 Basic Bus Operations
 Engage starter
 Tire checks
 Idling
 Proper Use of Clutch
 Not a brake!
 Don’t ride
 Adjust
Good Driving Habits for
 Proper Use of Brakes
 Use engine to slow bus
 Avoid quick stops
 Know when to disengage clutch
 Protect Rear Axle
 Don’t spin tires
 Careful on different surfaces
Good Driving Habits for
 Manual transmission
 Start in low gear
 Downshift up and down hills
 Stop completely before shifting into first or reverse
 Automatic transmission
 Use gearshift appropriately
 Don’t use accelerator to hold a vehicle
Post-trip Inspection
 Post-trip inspections are required by federal regulations (49
CFR Section 396.11)
 At a minimum, your report must include:
Service brakes
Parking (hand) brake
Steering mechanism
Lighting devices and reflectors
Windshield wipers
Rear vision mirrors
Coupling devices
Wheels and rims
Emergency equipment
Post-trip Inspection
 Check fuel level, fill
 After parking, let engine idle
 Check interior
 Damaged seats
 Leftover students or backpacks
 Check exterior
 Report
Passenger Compartment Check
 Some school bus seat backs are high and can hide
students and items.
Post-trip Interior Check Reminder
Reporting Problems:
Communication is Critical
Report problems immediately
Report problems accurately
Don’t operate an unsafe vehicle
Verbal communication can help resolve problems
but it isn’t a substitute for written documentation
 Remember:
 Location
 Timing
 Sounds
 Other descriptive characteristics
Communication Accuracy
 Location:
 Left/right
 Front/rear
 Inside/outside
 Upper/lower/underneath
Communication Accuracy
 Timing:
 Sometimes, always, often, occasionally
 Certain times
 More, less
 Slowly, suddenly, fast
 Sounds:
 Loud, soft, faint, noisy
 Bell, buzzer, bang, snap, sputter, clank, rumble,
groan, squeak, whine, rip, scrape, road, race, clunk,
ping, hiss
Communication Accuracy
 Describing problem:
 Grabbing, sticking
 Broken, loose, worn, crushed, pinched, torn, not
aligned, jammed, stuck, fayed, leaking, dripping,
spilling, weak, rusted, cracked, missing
 Hot, warm, cold, cool, frosty
 Burning, sweet, smoky, cloudy, bitter,
 Color, clear
 Oily, wet, sticky, slick, thick
 Anything unusual is a potential problem
 Danger to you
 Danger to your students
 Danger to other motorists
 Anyone who knows about a problem is responsible
for addressing it:
 Write it down
 Pass it on
 Fix it
 Take action on maintenance decisions
 Never ignore a defect
 Fix it temporarily/permanently
 Monitor problem
 Pull vehicle from service
 Substitute vehicle
 If on the road, may need to shut down
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