Chapter 5

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Chapter 5
Kitchen Essentials:
Part 2—Equipment
and Techniques
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Receiving and
Storage Equipment
 The receiving area is where all food deliveries
enter the restaurant or foodservice operation.
 an employee checks the quality and quantity
of the items ordered against those being
delivered.
 Storage:
 Dry goods must be stored at least 6 inches off
the floor on stainless-steel shelving.
 Perishable goods are stored in refrigerators
and freezers.
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Knives & Knife Care
 Each knife is designed for a  The blade of the knife
has several parts:
specific purpose.
 A good knife is made of
stainless steel because it
stays sharp for a long time.
 The blade is made of metal
and is either forged or
stamped.
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Knives & Knife Care (cont.)
 Honing is the regular maintenance required to
keep knives in the best shape.
 A sharpening stone is used to grind and hone
the edges of steel tools and implements (hold
knife at a 20 degree angle)
 A steel is a long metal rod that is used to
remove the microscopic burrs that are created
as a knife is used
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Types of Knives
 Boning knife: separate raw meat from the bone
 Chef’s (French) knife: all-purpose knife for
chopping, slicing, and mincing
 Cleaver: cuts through bones
 Fillet knife: thin, flexible blade for cutting fish
 Paring knife: trim and pare vegetables and fruits
 Serrated slicer: slices breads and cakes
 Tourne’: cutting the curved surfaces of vegetables
Hand Tools and Small Equipment
 Every restaurant and
foodservice kitchen
has small hand tools
and small equipment
called smallware.
 Hand tools are easy
to use, and are an
essential part of food
prepreparation.
 See p. 280-283
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Measuring Utensils
Measuring utensils are widely used in restaurant and
foodservice kitchens to measure everything from spices to
liquids to dry goods like oats, grains, sugar, and flour. They
can also measure temperature. P. 283-284
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Pots and Pans
 Pots and pans are
available in many
shapes and sizes and
are made of a variety
of materials, such as
copper, cast iron,
chrome, stainless
steel, and aluminum,
with or without
nonstick coating.
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Processing Equipment:
Cutters and Mixers
 Cutters and mixers are used to cut meats and
vegetables and to mix sauces and batters. 289-291
 It is illegal for minors to use, clean, or maintain
cutters or mixers.
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Steamers & Broilers
 Steamers allow the food to come into direct
contact with the steam
 Convection steamer: steam is vented over
the food

broilers: the heat source is above the food.
 Rotisserie
 salamander
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Ranges, Griddles, Fryers,
and Ovens
 Ranges are cooking units with open heat
sources.
 There are many types of ovens available to suit
a variety of restaurant and foodservice
operations.
P. 295
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Holding and Serving Equipment
 Bain marie: hot water bath used to keep food
warm
 Chafing dish: keep food hot on buffet table
 Steam table: holds hotel pans above 135
degrees
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Mise en Place
 Mise en place refers to the preparation and
assembly of ingredients and equipment needed
for a recipe
 The basic elements of mise en place—
 knife cuts
 flavorings
 herbs and spices
 and basic preparations
These are the building blocks of a professional
chef ’s training.
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Knife Basics

cleaning and cutting raw foods is one of the first
steps of mise en place.
 The hand that is not holding the knife, called the
guiding hand, prevents slippage and helps to
control the size of the cut.
 When using a knife, move the knife in a smooth
downward and forward slicing motion.
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Seasoning and Flavoring
 A seasoning is something that enhances the
flavor of an item without changing the primary
flavor of the dish.
 There are four basic types of seasoning
ingredients:
Salts
Sugars
Peppers
Acids
 Flavoring should enhance the base ingredients
of a dish
Herbs
spices
extract
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Herbs and Spices
 Herbs are the leaves, stems, or flowers of an
aromatic plant.
 Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds, or
berries of an aromatic plant.
 Heat, light, and air all speed the loss of flavor
and color of spices and herbs
 Add fresh spices and herbs toward the end of
cooking
 Use whole spices at the beginning of the
cooking process
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Pre-preparation
Techniques
 Basic cooking techniques in pre-preparation
includes:
 separating eggs
 whipping egg whites and whipping cream
 setting up a bain-marie
 making parchment liners for pans
 Blanching: involves cooking in a liquid just long
enough to cook the outer portion of the food.
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Heat Transfer
 Conduction is the transfer of heat from one item
to another when the items come into direct
contact with each other.
 Convection is the transfer of heat caused by the
movement of molecules (in the air, water, or fat)
 Radiation does not require physical contact
between the heat source and the food being
cooked (microwave)
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Dry-Heat Cooking Methods
dry-heat cooking, food is cooked either by direct heat
(grill) or by indirect heat (an oven).
 Food cooked with dry heat must be naturally tender or
prepared by adding moisture.
 Several ways to add moisture:
 Larding: inserting long, thin strips of fat into a large,
naturally lean piece of meat with a needle
 Barding: wrapping a lean piece of meat with strips of
fat (bacon) before cooking
 Marinating: soaking an item to provide moisture and
flavor
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Dry heat cooking methods
 Broiling: rapid cooking method that uses high heat from
above the food.
 Grilling: cooking above a heat source
 Roasting and baking: cook food by surrounding the
items with hot, dry air in the oven.
 Griddling: is cooking a food item on a hot, flat surface
 Sautéing: cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat
over relatively high heat.
20
Dry-Heat Cooking Methods (cont.)
 Stir-fry: closely related to sauté. Like sauté, it is a quickcooking, dry-heat method.
 Pan-fry: cook in an oil over less intense heat than that used
for sautéing or stir-frying.
 Deep-fry: bread or batter coat it, immerse (completely
cover) it in hot fat, and fry it until it is done:
 breading: same components as batter, but they are not
blended together (seasoned flour and an egg and buttermilk
dip) .
 Recovery time is the amount of time it takes oil to reheat to
the correct cooking temperature once food is added.
 The smoking point is the temperature at which oils begin to
smoke, which means it has begun to break down.
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Moist-Heat
Cooking Methods
 When simmering, completely submerge food in a
liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature.
 When poaching, cook food between 160°F and
180°F. The surface of the poaching liquid should
show some motion, but no air bubbles should break
the surface.
 Blanching: partially cook food (parboil) and then
finish it later.
 Steaming is cooking food by surrounding it in steam
in a confined space
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Combination-Cooking
Methods
combination of dry-heat and moist-heat cooking
methods
 braising: (Daube – beef, vegetables, wine; pot roasting)
 sear the food item in hot oil
 partially cover it in liquid
 finish cooking in the oven or stovetop (long, slow cooking
breaks down connective tissue)
 Stewing: (blanquette – white stew; Navarin – made w/ mutton)
 bite-sized pieces seared;
 then add liquid –more than braising (cover the food
completely)
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Sous Vide and
Microwave Cooking
 Sous vide: food is cooked for a long time
(sometimes over 24 hours) Sous vide is French
for “under vacuum.” Cooks place food in airtight
plastic bags and then place the bags in water
that is hot but well below boiling point.
 Many foods can be baked or roasted in a
microwave oven; they cook food with waves of
energy or radiation—microwaves—rather than
with heat.
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Determining Doneness
& Plating
 There are two important qualities that cooks look for to
determine a product’s doneness:
 desired texture
 the minimum internal
 Portioning is the amount of an item that is served to the
guest.
 Overportioning results in increased cost and lower
profit from an item.
 Plating: layout of the item on the plate or in the bowl and
the garnishing of the item.
 Garnish enhances the food being served.
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Healthy Diets
 A healthy diet:
 fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free
or low-fat milk and milk products
 Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans,
eggs, and nuts
 Is low in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol,
salt (sodium), and added sugars
 Recommended Dietary Allowances are
daily nutrient standards established by the
U.S. government.
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Vegetarian Diets
A vegetarian is a person who consumes no meat, fish, or
poultry products. There are different types of vegetarians:
 A vegan will consume no dairy, eggs, meat, poultry, fish,
or anything containing an animal product. They consume
only grains, legumes, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds.
 A lacto-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items plus
dairy products.
 An ovo-vegetarian consumes all vegan foods plus
eggs.
 A lacto-ovo-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items
plus dairy products and eggs.
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Dietary Guidelines for Americans
 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 is a
document published jointly by the Department of
Health and Human Services and the USDA.
 40 nutrients are required for good health
 Total fat should be less than 30% of total calories
 Cholesterol: Consume less than 300mg/day
 Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables
 Consume less than 2300 mg (1 tsp) of
sodium/day
 Drink alcohol in moderation
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MyPyramid
 MyPyramid translates the RDAs and dietary
guidelines into the kinds and amounts of
food to eat each day.
 The MyPyramid symbol emphasizes six key
themes:
1. Proportionality
2. Variety
3. Physical Activity
5.4
4. Moderation
5. Gradual
Improvement
6. Personalization
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Nutrition Labels
 The mandatory components on the
Nutrition Facts label are:
 Serving size and servings per
container
 Total calories and calories from fat
 Trans fat
 Cholesterol
 Sodium
 Total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and
sugars
 Protein
 Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron
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The Problem of Obesity
A person who is overweight or obese has a weight that is greater than
what is generally considered healthy.

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