GSAR Ops - Illinois Search and Rescue Council

advertisement
Purpose
• Educate the emergency response community
about fundamentals of ground search and
rescue & initial response to the same
• Train individuals in search skills and tactics so
they can function effectively on a search crew
• To promote searcher safety and risk
management in an operational environment
Administrivia
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Organization of the Course
Scope of the Course
War Stories vs. Illustrative Examples
Professional courtesy
Breaks
Fire Exits
Pagers / Cell Phones / Radios
EMS continuing education
Sign-in sheet
Instructors
Name, Agency, Lead Instructor
Name, Agency, Instructor
Name, Agency, Instructor
Name, Agency, FTO
Name, Agency, FTO
Illinois SAR Council
Represents 40 Land SAR agencies or
organizations serving Illinois
•
•
•
•
•
•
Education
Training
Standards
Networking
Resource Coordination
Professional Development
www.illinoissar.org
ISARC Searcher Curriculum
• Search & Rescue Initial Operations (3)
– Initial response & reflex tasking for a missing person incident
• Basic Land Navigation (8)
– Basic searcher skills, patterns, and techniques
• G649: Ground Search & Rescue Operations (16)
– Basic searcher skills, patterns, and techniques
• SAR Water Rescue Level I (8)
– Land-based search of moving water and self/shore based rescue
SAR Training Matrix
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Search and Rescue:
What Is It?
• Search: To locate persons in distress
• Rescue: To retrieve persons in distress,
provide for their initial medical or other needs,
and deliver them to a place of safety
Working Definition
• SAR is the application of all available
resources to locate and assist persons who
are, or are feared to be, in actual or potential
distress.
SAR Education
• Search and rescue skills are diverse
and cover many areas.
• Divided into three basic categories
– Search
– Rescue
– Survival/support
• This course covers
search skills
Search is an Emergency!
Much like HazMat, treat SAR as an
emergency until you know otherwise!
• The subject may require emergency care
• The subject may need protection from themself
or their environment
• Time and weather destroy clues
• The size of the search area increases with time
• Not everyone will, if left alone, survive & walk out
Four Phases of SAR
1.
2.
3.
4.
Locate
Access
Stabilize
Transport
Local SAR Authorities
• Local Law Enforcement are typically the
first to arrive and begin the SAR response
• The actual conduct of SAR typically falls
upon units of local government
– Assisted by local volunteer and nonprofit
groups with SAR capability
– Jurisdictional authorities may vary in County,
State, or National Parks / Forests
Local SAR Resources
•
•
•
•
Law Enforcement
Emergency Management
Fire/Rescue/EMS
Forest Preserve/Parks & Recreation
Departments
• Private volunteer non-profit SAR groups
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Subject Profile
• Profile is a physical and mental description
of the missing subject(s)
• Profile is highly dependent on thorough
investigation
• Profile is dynamic and is continually
evolving and developing
• Search managers / planners will
categorize the subject
General Factors
All things being equal, overall survival risk is
based on a number of factors
• General state of health
• Mental / behavioral capacity
• Past experience in the environment
• Physiological effects of the environment
• Biological cycles (Biorhythm)
Mental Impact & Factors
• “City Folk” are dependent upon technology
and modern conveniences
• How a person reacts under stress when
isolated is unknown
• Mental impact of being lost varies, usually
shock-like disbelief
• Subjects normally overcome their
emotions
Mental Impact & Factors
• Existing fears may be enhanced and
overcome rational behavior
• Cycles of fear, abandonment, and
embarrassment are normal
• Cognitive mapping & development
• ”All lost persons are also missing, but
most missing persons are not lost”
Notable Behaviors of Lost
People
•
•
•
•
•
•
Failure to take shelter or build a fire
Discarding equipment
Discarding clothing or disrobing
Detectability varies from hour to hour
Use travel aids when available
Belief that they are on their own and
nobody will be coming looking for them
Common Lost Person
Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Following a Travel Aid
Traveling a straight line
Direction Sampling
View Enhancement
Backtracking your route
Folk Wisdom
Staying put in one place
(they will come looking for me )
Children 1-3 Years Old
BEHAVIOR
• Have no concept of being "lost"
– No navigation skills or sense of direction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tend to wander aimlessly (Hill ’98)
Tend to seek out a location to go to sleep
Naturally tend to seek shelter in bad weather
Sometimes drawn away by an animal
They are generally inquisitive
Often not responsive to searchers
Abduction is always a possibility
Children 1-3 Years Old
TRAVEL AIDS
• 57% used path of least resistance
• 43% found in brushy areas or thickets
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• In, on, and under
• Tend more towards thorough techniques
• Concentrate within 300m of PLS
• Distances tend to be shorter, so confinement is
not as big a priority
Children 4-6 Years Old
BEHAVIOR
• More mobile than 1-3 year olds
• Will try to return home, or to familiar
surroundings
• Have definite interests which may
determine where they are
• When tired will hole up and sleep
• Stranger danger may affect searcher
response, but wears off after significant
time
Children 4-6 Years Old
TRAVEL AIDS
• 57% used path of least resistance
• 43% found in brushy areas or thickets
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Focus on clues linked to definite interests
• In many respects may be similar to 1-3,
especially if sleeping or holed up
Children 7-12 Years Old
BEHAVIOR
• More developed navigational skills, become
confused in strange surroundings
• Often lost due to “short cutting”
• Often resort to trail running
• Often are preoccupied and fail to pay attention to
where they are going
• May intentionally run away to avoid punishment
or gain attention
• Often will not answer when called
Children 7-12 Years Old
TRAVEL AIDS
• 67% used path of least resistance
• 33% found in brushy areas or thickets
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Focus on clue seeking at likely spots
• Confinement of trails and the general area
should be a top priority
Youths 13-15 Years Old
•
•
•
•
•
Frequently become lost while exploring
Rarely travel far
Usually respond to searcher's calls
Often resort to direction sampling
Consider runaway or domestic factors
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
BEHAVIOR
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Poor memory and cognitive reasoning ability
Oriented to the past – disease sends them back
Medical problems generally limit mobility
Generally start by using a travel aid and lack the ability
to turn around
Do not leave many physical clues
Will not cry out for help or respond to shouts
May try to return to former residence or favorite location
Will normally travel until physically stopped
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
DETECTABILITY
• 35% usually found by non-searchers
• 16% found by hasty teams
• 15% found by efficient searching
• 15% found by helicopter
• 10% found by search dogs
• 5% found by road patrols
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
RURAL AREAS
• 47% found in creeks, drainages, thick
brush, briars, or dense cover
• 18% found in an open field
• 18% found in a house
• 7% found on a road
• 7% found in the woods
• 4% found in swampy, wet areas
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
URBAN AREAS
• 55% found in streets, sidewalks, parking
areas, and residential yards
• 25% found in businesses
• 10% found in hospitals & senior centers
• 6% found in public areas
• 2% found in a remote area
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
• 89% found within one mile of IPP
– 50% of those found within 0.5 miles
• Usually found a short distance from a road
(33 meters / 100 feet)
Elderly (exhibiting signs of
dementia, senility or Alzheimer’s)
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Early containment / confinement actions
• Early use of trackers or tracking dogs at IPP and
along roadways
• Search nearby previous residences or
employment location and the routes between
• Search heavy briars, bushes, and thickets
• Expand search outwards from IPP
• 100m trackline searches parallel to roadways
Elderly (others over 65)
BEHAVIOR
• Capable of traveling just as far as younger
persons engaged in same activity
• Tend to behave more rationally than younger
counterparts
• More willing to build shelter and aid in their own
rescue
• Easily attracted to something that interests them
• Likely to overextend themselves and exhaust
themselves rapidly
Elderly (over 65)
TRAVEL AIDS
• 47% used path of least resistance
– Particularly if they had a hunting background
• 53% found in brushy areas or thickets
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Hearing problems may affect detection, so they
may not respond to searcher calls
• Consider their activity as the basis for search
planning, not their age – they may surprise you!
Autistics
BEHAVIOR
• May not understand what they see, hear, or
sense
• Tend to tune out the world around them
• May appear deaf, and fail to respond to words or
sound
• May become distressed at everyday sounds or
occurrences
• May show insensitivity to pain, cold, heat, or
may overreact to any of the same
Psychotics / Schizophrenics
BEHAVIOR
• Many will not respond to their name (93%),
but are verbal (21%)
• May evade searchers
• Typically do not get into brush/briars
• Typically not traveling to an identifiable
location
• Lack of medication is typically the factor
• None “got lost” in the traditional sense
Psychotics / Schizophrenics
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Early use of trackers / dogs from IPP
• Containment & road patrols are important
• Cut for sign along roads & trails
• Subject may have fear of authority, so uniforms
may be an issue
• Investigation, re-checks of residence, and
involvement of LE is particularly critical
• Evasion may require areas to be re-checked and
other actions to be taken strategically & tactically
Despondents
BEHAVIOR
• Suffering depression, sometimes severe
• Most just want to get out of sight or are seeking
a specific, significant location
• Are generally seeking solitude
• Will not generally respond to searchers, and
may actively evade searchers
• Are generally within sight and sound of
civilization
• Rarely take steps to protect themselves from the
environment
• Drugs, alcohol, medication may be factors
Despondents
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Should be considered extremely urgent
• Most likely require medical aid or evaluation
• Containment is not a priority
• Early use of trackers and dogs at IPP
• Hasty search of all scenic and significant
locations
• Lean towards more thorough search spacing of
a relatively small area
• Consider subject non-responsive possibly
evasive
Despondent / Suicidal
BEHAVIOR
• Will generally take a road or trail which starts
near the PLS/LKP
– Travel until they decide to commit suicide
– Will leave the road or trail and continue, usually at a
right angle, until they are out of sight of the road or
trail on which they were walking
• Search head rows of corn fields
• Search thickets along prominent paths
• Suicidals are not typically homicidal
• Use profile for Despondents
Mental Subjects
BEHAVIOR
•
•
•
•
•
Act like a blend of children 7-12 & Alzheimers
Do not respond to their spoken name (97%)
Most often will be hidden from view
Often will hole up for days in the same location
May have no physical impairment, but lack the
understanding and will to help themselves
• Easily attracted by interesting sights and sounds
• Often found in structures
• Do not travel to an identifiable target
Mental Subjects
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• High urgency due to inability to protect themselves
• Focus on clues linked to definite interests
• If capable of good mobility, confinement should be a
priority
• Check drainages/streams, brush/briars, and area of
residence systematically
• Evasion may require special tactics & re-search of areas
• Air scent dogs & trackers into forest / drainages near IPP
• Expand outward from the IPP after initial hasty tasks
have been completed
Mental Subjects
SUBJECTS FOUND
• Structures – 21%
• Drainages – 21%
• Woods / forest – 16%
• Open fields / yards / gardens – 16%
• On a road – 11%
• Brush / briars – 11%
• 85% found physically uninjured
Hikers
BEHAVIOR
• Rely on trails with a set destination
• Problems occur when trail conditions change, or
injury occurs
• Mismatched hiking parties can lead to separation
• Cutting switchbacks a leading cause of disorientation
• Highly dependent on trails and travel aids for
navigation - many carry no compass
• Most poorly prepared, poorly equipped, and generally
lack experience in remote areas
• Tend to travel further than other categories
Hikers
BEHAVIOR PATTERNS (Mitchell)
• 46% followed a travel aid at some point after they
determined themselves to be lost / overdue
• 43% found themselves and walked out on their own
• 92% found within the first 24 hours
• Those traveling the greatest distance from PLS also
descended by roughly the same proportional amounts
• 30-40% travel at night
• Subjects were usually responsive to searchers
• Subjects were usually young and in good physical
condition but were not well prepared
Hikers
TRAVEL AIDS
• 75% used path of least resistance
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Confinement is a very high priority
• Trackers and clue aware searchers to run trails,
paths, roads, ridges, etc
• Consider aerial photos to plot lines of least
resistance, trails, navigation aids, etc
• Small widely spaced rapid response efficiency
search crews and air scent dog crews
• Consider sound and light/sound sweeps
Hunters
BEHAVIOR
• When laws require “hunter orange” this may aid in
helicopter detection (unless it’s fall)
• Many hunters will fire shots if they believe
searchers are looking for them, and respond to
sounds if they are able
• Many will go to great lengths to walk out due to
ego or punitive after hours hunting fines
• Experienced hunters may build a fire and shelter
at night and walk out at daybreak (1/3)
Hunters
BEHAVIOR Cont’d
• Concentrate on game more than navigation
• In pursuit of game often wind up in deadfalls,
boulder fields, thick underbrush or heavy snow
• Tend to overextend themselves into darkness
• Tend to push beyond their physical abilities
• Typically under-prepared for foul weather
Hunters
TRAVEL AIDS
• 52% used path of least resistance / travel aids
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Confinement is a very high priority
• Attraction methods may be particularly effective
• Check decision points along route for clues/sign
• Local knowledge of favorite places, tree stands, animal
movements, hunting areas is important
• Small rapid efficiency search of high probability areas
• Aerial surveys may be useful to determine paths of least
resistance, trails, clearings, etc
Fishermen
CONSIDERATIONS
• May be lost traveling on trail to/from fishing site,
or by boat trying to return to launch site after
dark
• Engine problems / lack of fuel for boat
• Consider drowning, alcohol may be a factor
• Generally well oriented to the environment
• Being overdue is likely accident-related
• Often these incidents will be a recovery mission
Fishermen
STRATEGY IMPLICATIONS
• Thorough investigation, including favorite fishing
sites and routes to and from
• Determine if subject is usually mobile or
stationary
• Direction of wind and currents for lost or drifting
boats, if a boat is in play
Skiers
BEHAVIOR
• Most are young (<35) and in good physical
condition
• Usually well equipped and dressed for the WX
• Most become lost due to human error - wrong
route or misjudgment of time and distance
• Injury may lead to immobility and high risk for
hypothermia
• Usually wearing bright colored clothing
Skiers
BEHAVIOR PATTERNS (Mitchell)
• 60% had survival training of some sort
• 33% blamed weather as a factor
• 25% followed path of least resistance once lost
• 20% blamed darkness as a factor
• 20% had a poor map or no map at all
• 83% stopped moving within 24 hours
• 30-45% moved at night
• 50% self rescued themselves
• 50% found by SAR hasty and visual tracking resources
Others Lost & Overdue
Walkaways, Campers, Picnickers, Others
BEHAVIOR (Mitchell)
• Most in good physical & mental condition
• Most lost due to disorientation, poor supervision, or
intentional group separation
• 40-50% adequately equipped
• Clothing: 45-55% adequately, 30% questionable, 15%
inappropriately clothed for activity
• Greater likelihood to wander about or go cross-country
than most other profiles
• High percentage communicative with searchers
Others Lost & Overdue
Walkaways, Campers, Picnickers, Others
TRAVEL AIDS
• 50% followed path of least resistance at some
time while missing
• 90% not moving more than 24 hours
• 30-50% moved at night
DISTANCES
• 33% found within ½ mile of PLS
• 69% found within 2 miles of PLS
• 90% found within 5 miles of PLS
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Vision Theory
• Central vision is that portion of your field of
vision where the images are sharp and fully
recognizable by the brain for what they are
• A person who fixates on a point “sees”
everything within approximately a 10º cone
called the area of central vision
• Peripheral vision extends approximately 140180º
• Peripheral vision reacts more to color, contrast,
movement, or light
Central Vision
Putting Vision Theory to Work
• Search Range is the distance at which the
searcher can see and recognize an object
the size and shape of the search target
• Search range is a factor of searcher
ability, terrain, vegetation, target
composition (shape, size, color), &
environment
• Search range is “field calibrated” at the
beginning of each search
Determining Search Range
• Average Maximum Detection Range
• Place an object of similar composition to
the search target in a sample environment
• Measure outbound and inbound surveys of
the object on 6-8 distinct “legs”
• Mark the paces at limit to where the
searcher can see and recognize the object
for what it is
• Take the average of the distances
AMDR Video Demonstration
CLICK HERE
Critical Separation
• Critical Separation is the sum of two
searchers’ individual search ranges
• AMDR1 + AMDR2 = 1 Critical Space
Visual Search Theory
• To fully “see” an assigned area, a
searcher must systematically sweep the
area, stopping the eye for at least 1/3
second for the brain to fully see and
recognize the objects in the area of central
vision
• Remember - the area of central vision is
only 10º
Visual Search
Fixation
Area
Focus Point or
Fixation Point
The Golden Rule
• DON’T SEARCH WHILE WALKING!
– While repositioning the eye, the eye
unfocuses slightly
– Searcher movement causes further
degradation of vision
– There are usually terrain obstacles which
already provide incomplete coverage
– You should be watching where you are going
The Search Cycle
• In order to ensure the most complete
coverage, the search cycle is:
– Stop
– Search 360º
– Walk (with purposeful wandering)
– Stop
– Search 360º
– Repeat…
Searching
• Historically, line search has been the
method of choice for search teams
Line Search Ground Coverage
• Searching from left to right…
Effects of Terrain & Vegetation
• Terrain features can mask the target
• Vegetation can restrict the search range
Purposeful Wandering
• Technique used to ensure that terrain and
vegetation concerns are addressed
Search Cycle
Video Demonstration
CLICK HERE
Search Methods
• Active
• Passive
Passive Search
• Investigation
– Neighborhood interviews, telephone calls
• Confinement
– Establish a perimeter
• Visual attraction
– Helicopter, signal fire, flashing lights
• Sound attraction
– Siren/PA
Time vs. Search Area
Two Hours
Time doubles, search
area is now 4 times
as large.
One Hour
The chance of success is
directly related to the size
of the search area.
Confinement:
Limiting the Search Area
• Initial tactical procedure used to limit the
size of the search area
• Establish specific boundaries beyond
which the missing person could not have
reasonably passed
• Because of the time criticality, initial
resources should be utilized to establish
confinement
Confinement Methods
•
•
•
•
Road or trail blocks
Perimeter patrols
Lookouts
Track traps
Active Search
• Initial Search
• Efficiency Search
• Thorough (Evidence) Search
Initial Search
• Formerly referred to as Type I or Hasty
Search
• Rapid search of high probability points and
routes by immediately available resources
• Major criterion is speed
• Hasty search should never last beyond 3
hours at the most
Initial Search Procedure
• Search area immediately surrounding the PLS to
100 yards in all directions
• Run trails and paths looking for the subject, or
someone who may have seen the subject
• Search likely places indicated by the subject profile
and investigation, as directed by search
management
• Protect clues which may exist or be discovered
• Continue containment, as applicable
• Continue investigating and gathering information
Reference ISARC Form 501
Efficiency Search
• Formerly referred to as Type II Search
• Systematic search of high probability
areas by specially trained resources
• Typically 5-7 person crews
• Balances speed with thoroughness to
maximize efficiency
Tight (Closed) Grid
•
•
•
•
•
•
Efficient Search Tactic (formerly Type II)
Used for search of an area
Traditional method of search
Best with 5-7 trained searchers
Line up along base line at CS=1
Proceed along guide line spacing off guide
flanker
Loose (Open) Grid
•
•
•
•
•
Efficient Search Tactic (formerly Type II)
Used for search of an area
Performed very similar to tight grid
Best with 3-5 searchers
Spacing is greater than CS=1 and is
usually specified by search planners
Sound Sweep
• Credited in 1992 to Martin Colwell of
Lion’s Bay SAR, BC, Canada
• Attraction technique with field searchers
spaced very widely
• Blowing whistles then listening for a
response
– Be sure to cover your ears
• Easily combined with grid searches
Thorough (Evidence) Search
• A slow, systematic
search of all areas
using the most
thorough techniques
• The major criterion is
thoroughness
Thorough Search
• Formerly referred to as Type III Search
• Commonly used for Evidence Search
• Performed essentially the same as a tight
grid search
• May use more than 7 searchers
• All in a straight line moving in unison
• CS < 1
• No purposeful wandering
Search Technique Summary
• Initial Search
– Points and routes (not areas)
• Efficiency Search
– Open Grid : CS > 1
– Closed Grid: CS = 1
• Thorough (Evidence) Search
– CS < 1
Search Crew Positions
• Crew Leader
(behind)
– Manages and directs the crew in the
fulfillment of its assigned task(s)
• Flanker
(both ends)
– Responsible for navigation, flagging, and
positioning of the crew
• Searcher
(in the middle)
– Primary responsibility for the search function
Flanker
Video Demonstration
CLICK HERE
Crew Leader
Video Demonstration
CLICK HERE
Search Patterns
• Parallel
• Trackline
Parallel Search
• Used in grid search & area search
• Search starts at one boundary and
continues to the opposite boundary of the
segment
– If one stops, all must stop
• Flankers blaze a track with flagging tape
• At opposite end, the crew pivots on the
flanker and returns along the original line
to continue with the next sweep
X
X
X
X
X
X
F1
S
S
X
X
X
CL
S
F2
X
F1
X
S
S
CL
X
CL
X
F2
S
S
S
F1
X
X
X
X
S
F2
Trackline Search
• Used in route search
• Point man follows centerline of track with
equal number of searchers on either side
• Flankers on either side of line
• Crew Leader usually even with flankers
• “V” formation usually used
S
S
S
F1
F2
x
x
x
x
CL
x
x
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Searcher Safety
An injured rescuer is no good
to the victim
Safety Factors
Environmental
– Climate
– Inclement weather
– Darkness
Natural
– Poisonous plants
– Wild animals
– Stinging insects
Safety Factors
Terrain Hazards
– Topography
– Water features / hazards
– Vegetation
Man-made obstructions
– Fences, manholes, culverts, etc.
– May not be obvious
Personal Protective Equipment
• Long pants
• Sturdy boots with
ankle protection
• Hat, cap, or helmet
• Rain gear
• Insect repellant
• Sunscreen
• Work gloves
Searcher Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Whistle
Flashlight
Magnetic compass
Personal first aid kit
Water bottle
Pen & paper
Flagging material
Crew Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
Portable radio / cell phone
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Standard first aid kit
Extra batteries
Mission-specific equipment
Safe Practices
© Gary Larsen - 2001
Safe Practices
• Use the buddy system
• Maintain contact with the search base
• Avoid hazardous terrain features and/or
use appropriate PPE around them
(cliffs, swamps, fast flowing creeks, etc)
• Take necessary rest breaks
• Avoid marked danger or no trespassing
areas
Risk Communication
• If YOU perceive a
hazard, it is YOUR
responsibility to say so
• Always err on the side of
caution and safety
• NEVER assume another
crew member sees,
hears, or knows what
you do concerning safety
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Resources – Basic
• Untrained searchers
– Source of manpower
– Not ‘clue aware’
– Statistically demonstrate 20-25% success
• Trained SAR teams
– Trained specifically for SAR – search for clues
– Usually demonstrate 65-85% success
– Have to be called and available
Clue Discovery Implications
Clue
PLS
2 hours
1 hour
New search area = ¼ size
Resources – Specialized
• Search Dogs
– Must know what standard they are trained to,
and what capabilities they have
• Tracking – nose down
• Trailing – nose everywhere
• Air scenting – nose up
– May not be readily available
– Have limited time during high
heat / humidity
– Have special considerations for use
Resources – Specialized
• Trackers
– Not common or readily available
– More effective in “virgin” areas
• Mounted SAR
– Must be trained and available
– Horses use their sense of detection as well
• Specialized vehicles
– ATVs, watercraft, MTB, etc.
Resources – Aviation
Fixed wing aircraft
• Low effectiveness for objects as small as a
person without extensive SAR observer training
• Useful for route searches for vehicles or overdue
aircraft
• Usually limited to daylight search
• Have relatively long time on station
• Require airports for landing
• May require hours before response
Resources – Aviation
Rotary wing aircraft
• Most effective in open areas with
qualified observers
• Capable of ‘low and slow’ search
when terrain & conditions allow
• May serve as an attraction
• Possibility of rescue & medical
transportation
• May use hasty landing zones
• Have limited time on station
• Require special fuel
• Response time varies
Hi Tech (Toys-R-Us)
• Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR)
– "Sees" heat, but is blocked by vegetation
– Useful in detecting an object with a different
temperature from its background
– POD much lower than visual search
– Touchy - must be used by a qualified operator
• Hand Held Thermal Imaging Devices
– Much the same as FLIR, less range, easier to operate
• Night Vision Devices
– Not useful unless the user has been trained to operate
with the device in the search environment
LOCAL RESOURCES
Discuss resources to assist in local SAR
Operations
Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Concepts
Lost Person Behavior
Searcher Skills
Searcher Safety & Equipment
Search Resources
Outdoor Skills
Outdoor Skills
“It’s easy to make an
outdoorsman a SAR responder,
but challenging to make a SAR
responder an outdoorsman”
Fundamental Skills
You will need to develop more outdoor skills
to be an effective searcher
• Survival skills
• Distress signals
• Hiking / travel skills
• Environmental skills
• Land navigation
USGS Map Colors & Symbols
•
•
•
•
•
•
Black – man made features (roads, buildings)
Red – major highways; boundaries of public lands
Blue – water (lakes, rivers, streams)
Green – substantial vegetation (forest, scrub)
Brown – contour lines
White – areas with no significant vegetation or
“plain areas. Also permanent snow (glaciers)
• Purple – photo revised areas
Contour Lines
• Project 3D terrain on a 2D map
• Represent height above sea level
• Layout of contours indicates terrain features
–
–
–
–
–
The steeper the slope, the closer the lines are together
Valleys / drainages – V’s pointing uphill
Ridges – V’s pointing downhill
Summits – concentric circles
Depressions – circles with lines radiating toward center
3D Mountain Showing How Contours
Relate to Height
Top View of Mountain Showing Contours
Drawn Contour Lines
Using a Magnetic Compass
• The compass consists of
a magnetized needle
• The needle orients itself
along the magnetic field
lines of the Earth
• A standard orienteering
style field compass is
shown at right
Summary
This course has given you basic training in
essential SAR skills
You must practice the skills you have
learned and expand your base of outdoor
and complimentary skills
Outdoor Training
Afternoon (1300-1730)
• AMDR instruction
• Land Navigation
• Evidence, Efficiency, Initial Searches
Nighttime (1900-2100)
• Efficiency & Evidence search - darkness
Sunday
•
•
•
•
Be in staging, ready to go by 0830 hours
Simulated search scenario
We will terminate no later than 1200
Debriefing and dismissal no later than
1300
Acknowledgements
Anthony Marzano, CEM – Will County EMA
Sean Madison – Deputy Director, Kane Co OEM
Stan Krushas – IEMA Region 9 Coordinator
Eric Hodges – Chief of Operations, McLean County EMA
Based on an original presentation by Patrick Keane
Illinois Emergency Management Agency
Photo / Image Credits
US Air Force Rescue Coordination Center
US Coast Guard
Will County EMA
SARBC
El Paso County SAR, Colorado
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards