Tailwheel training notes

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TAIL WHEEL CONVERSION
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A
typical tricycle undercarriage
and a tailwheel aircraft
C152
DIFFERENCES
BIPLANE
NOSE WHEEL
STEERING
TAIL WHEEL
AHEAD OF M/G
C/G WEIGHT
REAR OF M/G
SIDE BY SIDE
SEATING
TANDEM
RIGHT HAND
YOKE / PANEL
TOE
GOOD
THROTTLE
LEFT HAND
PITCH & ROLL STICK / FLOOR
BRAKES
VISIBILITY
HEEL
POOR
TAXIING A TAILDRAGGER
• P1 IN REAR SEAT
• NOSE HIGH ATTITUDE
• PAX HEAD OBSCURING
VISION
• WEAVE LEFT LOOK RIGHT
• WEAVE RIGHT LOOK LEFT
• VERY SMALL CONTACT
AREA OF TAILWHEEL :INEFFICIENT STEERING,
USE RUDDER AND
SLIPSTREAM
• STRONG SUDDEN BRAKING
COULD CAUSE NOSE TO
TIP OVER LEADING TO
PROP STRIKE, CONTROL
TAXI SPEED
STEERING AND BRAKING
• STEERING IS DONE
WITH TOES
• BRAKING IS DONE
WITH HEELS
• IF BRAKE APPLIED
TOO HARSHLY,
TAILWHEEL
CASTORS, MAY
RESULT IN
GROUND LOOP
EFFECT OF WIND
• LET “JOYSTICK BE
BLOWN BY WIND”
• BIPLANE HAS 4
AILERONS !
• DUE LIGHT TAIL,
HEAVY NOSE,
WHEN SLIPSTREAM
STRONGER THAN
WIND, HOLD TAIL
DOWN
TAKE OFF, TORQUE
• AS POWER IS
APPLIED,
• NEWTONS 3RD LAW:
EVERY FORCE HAS
AN EQUAL AND
OPPOSITE
REACTION.
• TORQUE WILL
CAUSE LEFT
WHEEL TO DIG IN
THUS VEER LEFT
TAKE OFF, SLIPSTREAM
• SLIPSTREAM WILL
CAUSE LEFT YAW
• ENERGISES THE
RUDDER AND
ELEVATOR AS
SPEED INCREASES
• THESE EFFECTS
ARE SIMILAR TO A
NOSEWHEEL A/C
TAKE OFF, ASYMETRIC BLADE
EFFECT
• ASYMETRIC BLADE
EFFECT WILL CAUSE
LEFT YAW AS MORE
LIFT IS GENERATED
ON DOWNGOING
BLADE DUE LARGER
ALPHA
• THIS EFFECT
INCREASES AS A/C
ACCELERATES!
TAKE OFF, PROPELLER
PRECESSION
• PROPELLER
PRECESSION WILL
CAUSE LEFT YAW IN
A CLOCKWISE
ROTATION. SMOOTH
PITCH FWD, NOT A
JERK FWD!
• WHEN TAIL IS
LIFTED, FEW
SECONDS OF POOR
DIRECTIONAL
STABILITY
EXPERIENCED!
TAKE OFF, CROSS WIND
• IF LEFT CROSS
WIND, MORE RISK
OF WEATHER
COCKING LEFT
DUE TO VERTICAL
SIDE AREA OF
FUSELAGE AND FIN
TAKE OFF, TENDENCY TO
SWING
• ALL THE FACTORS
MENTIONED
EARLIER MAKE
THE TAILDRAGGER
MORE PRONE TO
SWINGING LEFT
ON TAKEOFF
• OPEN POWER SMOOTHLY
• HOLD STICK SLIGHTLY BACK
TO KEEP TAILWHEEL ON
GROUND FOR STEERING
CONTROL
• USE RUDDER TO CHECK YAW
• USE SIDES OF RUNWAY TO
MAINTAIN CENTRELINE
• BEWARE OF USING HEEL
BRAKE WITH RUDDER ON
TAKE OFF ROLL
• LIFT TAIL OFF GROUND TO
ACCELERATE
• STICK BACK FOR TAKE OFF
AT CORRECT SPEED
Yikes!
INFLIGHT
•
•
•
•
•
•
OPEN COCKPIT
CORRECT CLOTHING FOR PILOT / PAX
NOISE
WIND
CRAMPED COCKPIT
BEWARE MAPS FLYING OUT !
INFLIGHT / CIRCUIT
• OVAL SHAPED CIRCUIT
DUE POOR FORWARD
VISIBILITY FROM
COCKPIT
• CLOSER TO RUNWAY
THAN IN A HIGH WING
CESSNA TO ENABLE
CURVING DOWNWIND /
BASELEG / FINAL
APPROACH
APPROACH
• WHEN DOWNWIND
ASSESS YOUR
DESCENT PATH IN A
CURVING APPROACH
• IF PITCHED DOWN TO
VIEW AHEAD, SPEED
WILL BUILD UP
• THUS MAKE A
SLIPPING TURN FROM
DOWNWIND THROUGH
BASE TO FINAL
APPROACH
HOLD OFF & TOUCHDOWN
• WHEN 20’ ABOVE
RUNWAY
• WINGS LEVEL, ROUND
OUT
• LOOK TO RUNWAY
EDGES FOR
ALIGNMENT
• HOLD LEVEL FLYING
ATTITUDE
• BEGIN RAISING NOSE
AS SPEED BLEEDS OFF
• TOUCHDOWN IN 3
POINT ATTITUDE
• HOLD STICK BACK
TOUCHDOWN
WHAT CAN GO WRONG & WHY
BOUNCE DUE BUNGEE LEADS TO LEAP IN AIR WITH NO AIRSPEED
@ LONDON AIRSPORTS
CENTRE
BOUNCE / BALLOON
• 3 POINT LANDING WITH HIGH RATE OF
DESCENT AND NO AIRSPEED WILL
RESULT IN A BOUNCE
• FLAT ATTITUDE WITH TOO MUCH
SPEED WILL RESULT IN A BALLOON
• IF SUFFICIENT RUNWAY AHEAD,
APPLY POWER, MAINTAIN STRAIGHT
LINE AND HEIGHT
• REMAKE THE LANDING
CROSS WIND LANDING
• KEEP INTO WIND WING
LOW
• TOUCHDOWN ON ONE
WHEEL
• IN LEVEL FLYING
ATTITUDE
• AFTER TOUCHDOWN,
HOLD STICK FORWARD
TO KEEP LEVEL
• AS SPEED BLEEDS
OFF, TAIL WILL COME
DOWN
WHY TAILDRAGGERS SEEM SO
HARD TO LAND
• CG IS BEHIND MAIN
WHEELS
• WHEN MAIN WHEEL
TOUCHES THE
GROUND, AIRCRAFT
DECELERATES
• CG KEEPS GOING
AHEAD AND PIVOTS
AROUND THE WHEEL
CAUSING PLANE TO
GROUND LOOP
CG SWINGS THE TAIL
EFFECTS ON TAILDRAGGER
DURING LANDING
WHEN YOU PITCH UP TO LAND, PROPELLOR “P” EFFECT CAUSES
A/C TO YAW RIGHT
REDUCING RPM CAUSES LOSS OF RUDDER AND ELEVATOR
EFFECTIVENESS JUST WHEN YOU NEED IT MOST!
FUSELAGE BLANKS OFF RUDDER AND ELEVATOR AS YOU
ROUNDOUT FURTHER REDUCING EFFECTIVENESS
TAILWHEEL HAS ONLY 2 INCHES SQUARE GROUND CONTACT
SURFACE AREA, THUS NO STEERING ABILITY UNTIL WEIGHT OF
TAIL IS ON IT.
VERY DRAGGY PLANE
DUE TO LARGE FRONTAL
AREA, ON ROUNDOUT
THERE IS A LARGE
INCREASE OF DRAG AND
THUS LOSS OF AIRSPEED
THE ROUND OUT AND
FLARE HAVE TO BE DONE
AT JUST THE RIGHT
HEIGHT, SPEED & TIME
IF LOW WING TOUCHES
GROUND, BEST CLOSE
THROTTLE, SWITCH
ENGINE OFF AND ALLOW
GROUND LOOP TO
COMPLETELY STOP THE
AIRCRAFT
@ LONDON AIRSPORTS
CENTRE
GO AROUND
AT DECISION HEIGHT OF
20 FEET, IF YOU DECIDE
TO GO AROUND,
TOO
STEEP
SMOOTHLY APPLY FULL
POWER, EXPECT
CHANGES IN PITCH, YAW
AND ROLL AND “P”
EFFECT
CHECK WITH RUDDER
AND AILERON
CLIMB AT SAFE SPEED
AND SAFE ATTITUDE
SHALLOW
CLIMB
SUMMARY
• WEAVE FOR TAXI
• CARE OPENING POWER
DUE ADDITIONAL EFFECTS
ASYMETRIC BLADE EFFECT
GYRO EFFECT OF PROP
WHEN PITCHING TAIL AT
TAKEOFF AND AT LANDING
• POOR FWD VIS
• STAY CLOSE IN CIRCUIT
WITH OVAL SHAPE
• CURVING BASE TO FINAL
• REDUCING VIS. AT ROUND
OUT AND FLARE
• GYROSCOPIC EFFECT OF
PROPELLOR ON LANDING!
• LARGE INCREASE IN DRAG
AT FLARE
• TIMING MUST BE RIGHT
• POOR STEERING ON
GROUND DUE SMALL TAIL
WHEEL CONTACT AREA
• SLOW TAXI SPEED AND
LOW POWER SETTINGS
• WEAVE FOR TAXI
FANTASTIC FUN TO FLY!
EXCITING, OPEN COCKPIT,
VERY STRONG
CONSTRUCTION, EASY TO
HANDLE IN THE AIR,
ALWAYS DRAWS A CROWD.
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