Development of integrated weed management packages in rain fed

advertisement
Development of integrated weed management
packages in rain fed upland Rice
By
Hudson Mugendi Kanga
MSc. Crop Protection Student
M.Sc. Proposal in Weed science
Supervisor
1. Dr. Safary Ariga
Economic Importance
• Rice (Oryza sativa L. or O. glaberrima) is the most
important staple food crop worldwide
• Globally, rice is the most favoured grain for direct human
consumption as compared to maize and wheat, which
are also used as livestock feed
• In East Africa, rice is fast becoming an important food
and cash crop with a per capita consumption range of 11
to 16 kg per person per year (USDA, 2010)
• In Kenya, the crop introduced in 1907, is grown in all rice
production ecologies. National rice consumption is
estimated at 300,000 metric tons compared to an annual
production range of 45,000 to 80,000 metric tons.
• Rice consumption is increasing at a rate of 12% annually
as compared to 4% for wheat and 1% for maize.
Problem Statement.
• Weeds can singly reduce grain yields of rice by 30 –
80% depending on cropping system and cultures.
• It is notable that several methods of weed control may
not singly and adequately smother weeds. For example
hand weeding can be relatively ineffective, particularly in
controlling many of the perennial weeds (e.g. Cyperus
spp.) that have underground tubers and rhizomes from
which they can rapidly re-establish.
• Integrated management entails use of varied methods
among them tolerant rice cultivars, cultural, herbicides
and their combinations, biological, fallowing and hand
weeding to sustainably control weeds of rice
• One of the most constraining factors in rainfed upland
rice production in Coast, Nyanza and Western provinces
of Kenya is striga weed infestation.
Striga weed.
Justification
• It is notable that several methods of weed control may
not singly and adequately smother weeds. For example
hand weeding can be relatively ineffective, particularly in
controlling many of the perennial weeds (e.g. Cyperus
spp.)
• Various weed types associated with rice require; use of a
combination of two or even five control methods that kill different
types of weeds
• One of the most constraining factors in rainfed upland rice
production in Coast, Nyanza and Western provinces of Kenya is
striga weed infestation
• Several integrated techniques for of striga have been
developed and tested.
•
•
Several trials involving the use of FYM at 10 tons/Ha, Nitrogen at 50kgs/Ha
and atphosphorous 50kgs/Ha have been conducted.
Use of various combinations in this experiment will give superb results
going by the individual methods researched in the past.
Broad Objective
1)To determine, develop, validate and promote the most
appropriate weed management technologies for weeds
control in Upland Rice.
Specific Objectives
• To determine the best integrated weed control
management package in Upland Rice.
• To determine the most cost effective method of weed
control in upland rice
• To establish the most appropriate package of integrated
weed management in the control of striga weed in
upland rice
General Methodology
• 4 Rice varieties, Some striga resistant/tolerant and the
other ones less tolerant were selected as part of the
integrated weed management package in the
combination of treatments .The varieties must be the
common ones used by farmers in western
Kenya(Kaewchumnong and Price (2000).Also
Furthmore,Johnson et al.
• The land where the rice will be grown will be plowed by
tractors.
• In experimental plots where the Farm yard manure will
be applied, it will involve incorporation before the actual
date of planting.At 10 t/Ha
• The nitrogen component as part of the treatment
combination will be applied above the normal rates
common for all the treatments.(Mumera 1983) 39
kgN/Ha
General Methodology contn.
• The control plots will be the normal farmers practice of 2
weeding per crop and another one without weeds
connntrol. The crop fertilizer application schedule will
follow the normal recommendations in the region.
• Herbicides application in the treatments and
experimental plots will be as per the researchers
recommendation.
• Some experimental plots will have cow pea intercropped
in between. This is in an effort to integrate more on striga
weed management which is prevalent prevalent in the
area. It will be planted at the same time with Rice.
Achievement of Objectives
To determine the best integrated weed control
management package in Upland Rice
• From the various packages in the treatments, objective
one will be achieved after the analysis of the results.
• Objective 2 will too be known after the results when the
gross margins for various experimental units are
computed.
• Objective 3 will likewise be met as all the combinations
of treatments in this experiment fully address this
objective.
Treatments
1. 2 hand weedings (Farmers practice)
2.No weeding-Control
3. Farm yard manure + Nitrogen fertilizer+ Pre- emergence
herbicide+1 weeding
4. Farm yard manure + Nitrogen fertilizer+ pre-e
herbicide+1post-e herbicide
5. Farm yard manure + Nitrogen fertilizer+ 2 Hand weeding
6. Farm yard manure+ Nitrogen Fertilizer + cow pea+ 2
Hand weeding
There will be one variety for each of the above treatments.
i.e NERICA 1, 4, 10 and Dourado precoce making a total of
24 treatments. As mentioned earlier this is part of
incorporating resistance as an aspect in striga weed
control. These treatments will be replicated 3 times.
Methodology contn
• The project will be conducted in Busia county
either at KARI Alupe or Busia ATC.
• The design will be Randomized complete Block
Design-RCBD.
• The data collection method will be random, by
taking a transect walk in the plots and pegging
the selected plants or area for data collection.
• The parameters or data collected will be , Yields,
Plant height, Leaf length and width, Shoot/root
ratio, Weed count, Pests and disease
incidences, crop vigor and assessment of crop
quality.
Data Analysis
• Data analysis will be by ANOVA.
Materials
• Rice Seeds and Cow pea seeds
• Fertilizers-SSP and CAN or NPK and CAN
• Farm Yard Manure
• Pre and Post emergence Herbicides
Equipment
• Knap sack Sprayer
• Wheel Barrow
• Spade
• Digging Hoe
• Planting Line
• Tape Measure
Expected Results
• The treatments combinations described above
will give high yields especially in plots where
striga weed will be controlled.
• An efficient, cost-effective weed control package
will be realized after data collection and analysis
and generalization.
• An integrated weed control strategy that
manages striga weed in rain fed upland rice will
be realized
Item
2013
Jan-April
Proposal and
presentation
**********
**********
***********
First season
Crop
Second
season crop
Data analysis
and
presentation
Thesis and
submitting
Y
E
A
R
2013
AprilMay
2013
AugustDec
2014
Jan-Dec
2014
Jan-June.
********
*********
*********
********
********
********
*******
********
*********
*********
**********
Budget
T
ITEM DESCRIPTION
GFS CODE
QUANTITY
UNIT COST
TOTAL
1
2
3
4
Seeds
Cow peas
Fertilizer
Farm yard manure
2211007
2211007
2211007
2211007
30
4 kgs
100 kgs
2 pick ups
100
400
84
1500
3,000
1,600
8,400
3,000
5
Herbicides
2211007
4 litres
1500
6,000
6
7
8
Weeding Labor
Plowing and Harrowing
Planting labor
2110202
2110202
20
4
34
250
2750
250
5,000
11,000
8500
9
Harvesting Labor
2110202
30
250
7,500
10
Supervisors fuel
2211201
30
1,000
30,000
11
Researcher’s fuel
2211201
20
1,000
20,000
12
Supervisors Vehicle
maintenance
2220101
2
80,000
160,000
13
Researcher’s Vehicle
maintenance
2220101
1
80,000
80,000
14
Researcher’s subsistence
2210303
10
10,000
100,000
15
Supervisors subsistence
2210303
10
10,000
100,000
Total
544,000
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards