Military applications of ocean models Jan Kristian Jensen Norwegian Defence Research Establishment [email protected] Norwegian Defence Research Establishment Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt (FFI) Ongoing projects on military meteorological & oceanographic services − Previous projects: Metoc (2002-2006), METOC II (2006-2011) − Current project: GEOMETOC (2011-2015) Main focus: Operational infrastructure, products and services for meteorological and oceanographic data In close cooperation with met.no and the Norwegian Defence, the Navy in particular − − The Royal Norwegian Navy: Heavy demand for operational services METOC = Meteorology and Oceanography Dedicated METOC department at naval base of Håkonsvern, Bergen – Education and training – Formulating user demands for services – Close and informal cooperation with met.no and FFI – Led by Lt. Commander Jon Tore Johnsen Some crucial, but often overlooked aspects The Navy is not interested in oceanography per se – but: How does conditions affect the planning and execution of naval operations? Important distinction! Infrastructure plays a vital role Information not on some web site somewhere – but at my fingertips Met.no is an important partner for building today’s and tomorrows military (and civilian) infrastructure for METOC services – Norge Digitalt and EU’s INSPIRE directive for information services – Automatic data transfer from met.no to classified military networks – Re-using existing internet services when implementing services at classified military network what products should the ocean modellers provide to the navy? • Current • Sound speed • Density • Value-added services Current speed & direction from ocean models • It doesn’t need to be accurate in every detail – but it must be good enough to be of value in planning and execution of operations • Very high resolution modelling is needed to replicate conditions in Norway’s complicated coastal topography • Is this beyond the capabilities of today’s state of the art ocean modelling? • Use in value added products (see later slide) Sound speed Sound speed important in submarine & anti-submarine operations Vertical position of the strongest sound speed gradients is of particular interest – Errors in ∂/∂z are very significant – Absolute errors are not important as long as the gradients are replicated – The thermocline and halocline must be adequately represented – Variability due to mesoscala dynamics must be replicated Calculated sonar performance (transmission loss) for a given set of sonar configurations and oceanographic conditions Density Density important in submarine operations – though not as crucial as sound speed gradient Requirements similar to sound speed: Absolute errors aren’t that crucial, but location and strength of gradients are important. Ula-class submarine Value added services Leeway drift model Probabilistic drift calculations of objects (persons, vessels, mines, containers) or substances (oil) A large number of particles (N=500) are injected with start points that are pertubated in space&time relative to last known location. LEEWAY drift model GUI at kilden.met.no NEW: Also backtracking capability You find something, where does it come from? Currents, wind and waves are crucial input to this service LEEWAY model part of search and rescue module implemented in Teleplan Maria map system (Maritime command and control system) what products should the ocean modellers provide to the navy? • Current – is state of the art modelling good enough to provide services of value?? • Sound speed Focus on vertical gradients • Density • Value-added services – like the LEEWAY model and the search and rescue module.