Unit 1 Golden Spike Power Point

Unit 1: The Vanishing Frontier
Chapter 1 The Golden Spike
Indian Removal: Indians were forced to move to
reservations by the federal government so white
settlers could have their land.
Land Hungry Settlers: wanted fertile land they
could afford and adventure
Reservations: The places where the government
moved the Indians after white settlers moved on
their land.
Great Plains: States west of the Mississippi River;
such as Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming
Completing the Railroad
Golden Spike: the last spike that joined the Central
and Union Pacific Railroads in Promontory Utah
on May 10, 1869.
Immigrants: People who come into a country from
another country. For the Railroad the immigrant
workers were: Irish and Chinese
Union Pacific: The railroad that started in
Nebraska and went west.
Central Pacific: The railroad that started in
California and went east.
Prairie: Large area of flat or slightly rolling
Transcontinental: Railroad that goes across the
Iron Horse: nickname for trains
Buffalo: The Indians called these animals
KINDRED. They provided food, shelter and
clothing for them. The number of buffalo’s in the
U.S. went from millions to only a few hundred
European Americans: White people who settled
the west.
Settlers: People who moved to the West to claim
cheap land.
Populist: A political party who was also known as
the People’s Party. It was made up of farmers.
They fought for the common man or little guys.
Chapter 2 Women on the Plains:
The Vanishing Frontier
Shanty: A roughly built cabin
Weather: Severe: blizzards, hail storms, draught,
Dugout: Houses that were dug out of the side of
hills and finished with sod bricks. Did not keep
the weather out.
Soddies: A 4 wall house built from bricks made of
mud and grass because there were no trees to
make lumber from. Did not keep the weather out.
Dangers on the Plains: Hailstorms, blizzards,
pests-such as grasshoppers. Weather a big factor.
Churned: a method used to make butter
 Forested: Has a lot of trees
 Homestead Act of 1862: This act gave land
to anyone who would farm it for 5 years
You get : 1) 160 acres of land, 2) you must
stay on it and farm it for 5 years, 3) you
must pay 18 dollar fee.
 Prosperity: Means you are doing well.
Chapter 3: “I Will Fight No More
Chief Joseph: Chief of the Indian tribe NEZ
PERCE. He called for peace. His way with words
made him a national hero.
Nez Perce: Indian tribe that lived in Oregon’s
Wallowa valley. This tribe successfully fought
and won many battles with the U.S. Army.
Broken Promise: The U.S. Government broke
many treaties with the Nez Perce over Wallowa
Stock piled: gathered together supplies.
White Bird Canyon: The Nez Perce fought the
The long retreat: The Nez Perce traveled 1,000
miles on foot to Canada to escape the U.S.
Wounded Knee: The last major Indian massacre
by white soldiers.
Reservations: Public land that was set aside for the
Indians. The Indians had to go whether they
wanted to or not. The land was not nice.
Defied: to dare to do something no matter what
General Howard: General in charge of the war
against the Nez Perce friends with Chief Joseph,
the guy who Joseph surrenders to.
Starvation: means no food, or famine
Inevitable: means is going to happen no matter
Chapter 4: A Voice for the
Farmers in trouble: New government policies on money
caused the prices of crops to drop and costs of farming
to go up. Farmers tried to use new machinery but had to
go in debt. The prices go down and because of this they
can’t pay their loans.
Peoples Party: Also known as : Populist- they wanted
some control over big companies, was made up of
Orator: means a forceful, charismatic speaker.
Inflation: The process where the prices of things and
services go up
William Jennings Bryan: Ran for President
against McKinley. Bryan was a famous
orator for the common man
 This political cartoon shows Bryan blowing
up McKinley.
“Cross of Gold”: a famous speech by Bryan that
said “Shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of
gold” Bryan supported silver instead of gold, or
small business vs. big business
Front Porch Campaign: McKinley had a “Front
Porch Campaign” McKinley wanted the people to
come to him instead of him going to the people.
He was from Ohio, he beat Bryan.
“Little Guys” people who supported Bryan- the
common man.
Big Business:McKinley is supported and supports
big business. Bryan is against it.
Make an argument: The Leader of your Indian
tribe passes around a treaty. The U.S.
Government is making a deal. The Treaty
States: “The government will buy your tribe’s
land and give you another place to live. The
Chief of your tribe asks you what you think.
Knowing what you know about how Indians felt
about life on the reservations and how they felt
about leaving their homeland, answer your chief
in a short essay in which you explain your
feelings about being removed from your land,
life on the reservation and treaties with the
government in general. Yes, I would go
because, No I would not go because. Must have
at least 7 sentences.