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What I am going to talk about today
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Moles
Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions
How to prevent skin cancer
Sunscreens
A word about Laser
Moles
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Most people have a few
Most do not cause a problem
Occasionally a nuisance!
Flat dark moles
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Junctional naevus –
located at junction of
outer and inner layer of
skin
More likely than other
moles to cause a problem
– so the one to watch
for!
Raised skin coloured moles
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Dermal naevus –
located in deeper layer
of skin
Very rare that they
turn into melanoma
Slightly raised dark moles
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Raised in the middle
Surrounding dark
pigmentation
Less likely to cause a
problem
Looks ugly but good!
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Seborrhoeic keratosis
Extremely common
Rough top
Usually do not need
treatment
Get them checked if
any doubt
Sin tags
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Harmless but can irritate
and aggravate
Neck, chest, back, armpits
or in the groin area
Can be removed by cutting,
freezing or burning
Warts
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Very common
Nuisance but not a
serious problem
Treatment can be more
uncomfortable and
troublesome than the
warts
Treating warts
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Number of treatments, none of them very
successful
Paints
Freezing
Duct tape!
How to cure your wart with duct
tape!
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Cover the wart with duct tape for 6 days. If the tape
falls off during this time, put on a fresh piece
After 6 days, remove the tape and soak the wart in
warm water for 5 minutes. After drying, rub gently with
an emery board or pumice stone to get rid of dead
tissue from the top of the wart
Leave the wart uncovered overnight and put the tape
on again the next day
Continue for up to two months.
Actinic keratoses
Actinic keratoses
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Dry, scaly patches
Form on sun exposed areas of the skin,
including the scalp, face, forearms, and back of
the hands
Caused by years of excessive sun exposure.
If you develop one you are likely to get another
Actinic keratoses
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Actinic keratoses on the
lip
Appear as cracking, dried
lips
Actinic keratoses
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Actinic keratoses are considered
PRECANCEROUS
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Important to treat them
Treat by freezing, creams and sometimes surgery
Avoiding new Actinic keratoses
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AVOID SUN EXPOSURE
The best way to avoid new actinic keratoses and
skin cancer is to protect your skin from the sun
and the damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays.
If you can’t avoid spending time outdoors, make sun
protection a priority. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen
with a minimum SPF of 30, and cover your skin with
long-sleeved shirts, trousers, and a wide-brimmed hat.
Basal cell carcinoma
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Commonest type of cancer
80% of skin cancers
NOT dangerous as does not spread beyond the
skin
Basal cell carcinoma
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A sore that comes and
goes but never
completely heals
A shiny bump or nodule,
especially if it appears
pearly or translucent
Treatment of basal cell carcinoma
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Creams for superficial ones
Freezing for small ones
Surgery for others
Squamous cell carcinoma
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10% of skin cancers
A dry, crusted, scaly
patch of skin that is red
and swollen at the base
A sore that won’t heal
Crusted skin
Squamous cell carcinoma
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Can sometimes spread beyond the skin
Important to diagnose and treat early
Main treatment is surgery
Sometimes radiotherapy is used
The ugliest!
Melanoma
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5% of skin cancers
Most DANGEROUS
SKIN CANCER
A mole that changes in
size, shape, colour, or
feel
A new mole that appears
and continues to grow or
change
The ABCDE rule
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Asymmetry. Does one half of a mole look different
from the other?
Border. Is the edge (border) of the mole ragged,
notched, or blurred?
Colour. Does the mole have a variety of hues or
colours within the same lesion?
Diameter. Is the mole wider than 6mm or 1/4 inch?
Evolving. Does the mole or skin lesion look different
from your other moles or has it changed in shape
colour, size or other trait?
Key point
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If you notice a mole that is different from
others, or which changes, itches, or bleeds
even if it is smaller than 6 millimetre – GET
ADVICE
Who is at risk?
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No one knows exact cause
Fair skin
Many moles especially more than 50
Severe, blistering sunburns: People who have had at
least one severe, blistering sunburn as a child or
teenager are at increased risk of melanoma
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation – sunlight as well as
tanning booths and sunlamps
Family history or personal history of melanoma
Treatment of melanoma
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Surgery is main treatment
Sometimes chemotherapy
How to prevent skin cancers?
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Minimize exposure to the sun at midday between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
Apply sunscreen, with at least an SPF-30 or
higher that protects against both UVA and UVB
rays, to all areas of the body that are exposed to
the sun.
Reapply sunscreen every two hours, even on
cloudy days. Reapply after swimming or
perspiring.
How to prevent skin cancers?
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Wear clothing that covers the body and shades
the face – wear hat and sunglasses
Avoid exposure to UV radiation from sunlamps
or tanning parlours.
Protect children. Keep them from excessive sun
exposure when the sun is strongest (between 10
a.m. and 4 p.m.), and apply sunscreen liberally
and frequently to children 6 months of age and
older.
Skin self check
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Monthly check for changes in moles
Stand in front of a mirror and check your skin for:
Unusual discolorations
Abnormal moles, looking for changes in:
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Colour
Shape
Size
Check the hard-to-see areas:
Under your arms
The soles of your feet
Between your toes
Part your hair and check your scalp
Have your partner check your back for skin discolorations and changing
moles
About sunscreens
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Sunscreen protects your skin by absorbing and
reflecting ultraviolet rays from the sun
Sunscreens
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All sunscreens have a sun protection factor
(SPF) rating that indicates how long a sunscreen
remains effective on the skin.
If you normally develop a sunburn in 10
minutes without wearing a sunscreen, a
sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will protect you for
150 minutes — 10 minutes multiplied by the
SPF of 15.
Sunscreens
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Use a "broad spectrum" sunscreen – one that
protects against ultraviolet A (UVA) and
ultraviolet B (UVB)
Use sunscreens with an SPF of at least 30.
Adults should cover their bodies in enough
sunscreen that would fill a shot glass and reapply
every two hours.
Laser treatment
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Not generally on the NHS!
Useful for hair removal, thread veins, skin
blemishes and scars
Important to select a clinic with good track
record
Take Home Messages
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If you notice a new skin lesion that stays or an
old one that starts changing GET ADVICE.
Enjoy the Sun but with RESPECT
IF you have a wart and you know it, make your
way to the nearest DIY store and get some duct
tape
Above all, Smile a little and
Keep Safe
Acknowledgement
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Some pictures from www.dermnetnz.org with
thanks
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