Political Landscapes: Barriers and Walls in the 20th and 21st Century

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Political Landscapes:
Barriers and Walls in the 20th and
21st Century
AP Human Geography
Directions
• Use the graphic organizer provided to
document information about important
barriers/walls built by countries to establish
their borders.
• This graphic organizer will help you answer
one of the FRQ’s found on the Unit Exam.
THE MEXICO/US BORDER
The Border
• The Mexico–United States border is an
international border running from Imperial
Beach, California, and Tijuana, Baja
California, in the west to Matamoros,
Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the
east.
• 1,969 miles long
Purpose
• to slow/control the
flow of illegal
immigrants/goods
from Mexico
Video
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9Pm8q8
OExM
THE BERLIN WALL
Another Cold War crisis
• Background
• East – West rivalry
• Berlin divided – contrast the two halves.
WEST: Prosperous, helped
by US, attracted people
from the East. Seen by
USSR as ‘infection’ in the
heart of Communist East
Germany.
EAST: Much less
prosperous and under
Communist control
What they wanted
The West
• Prevent USSR from
gaining control of East
Germany
• To see a united,
democratic Germany
The East
• Maintain control over E
Germany
• Make the West recognise
it as an independent
state
• Stop the flood of
refugees especially the
skilled and professional
ones – much needed in E
Germany
Purpose of Wall
• to prevent
East
Germans
from fleeing
to the West
Video
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szjFKADu6
9U
NORTH KOREA/SOUTH KOREA
DEMILITARIZED ZONE
NORTH
SOUTH
PER
CAPITA
GDP
$1,800
Many still
suffering
from lack
of food
PER
CAPITA
GDP
$32,020
ECOMONY
GROWING
RAPIDLY
Leadership in N. and S. Korea
• Kim Jong-un is the
supreme leader of
North Korea. He is the
son of Kim Jong-il.
• Park Geun-hye is the
eleventh and current
President of South
Korea. She is the first
woman to be elected as
President in South
Korea
• The two countries are separated by the DMZ
(demilitarized zone) at the 38th parallel.
• 38th Parallel - line of latitude (38 degrees
North) that separates communist North Korea
from democratic South Korea.
• DMZ – Demilitarized Zone- a weapons-free
zone between North Korea and South Korea;
no weapons or troops are permitted in this
zone, although each side is heavily guarded to
prevent invasion by the other; it has also been
made into a wildlife sanctuary in hopes that
might deter either side from becoming
aggressive
Purpose of the DMZ
• to act as a buffer zone
in order to reduce the
likelihood of violence
between North and
South Korea
North Korea
Population:
24.5 million
57% urban
SATELLITE IMAGES AT NIGHT
South Korea
Population:
50 million
80% urban
Video: Escape from North Korea
• http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/06/opinio
n/escape-from-north-korea.html?_r=0
Social/Political Consequences
• Increased tension between neighboring countries or among citizens
within a “walled” country (e.g., East Berlin)
• Increased isolation (reduction in the diffusion of culture)
• Stigmatizing of excluded population (either internally or externally)
• Promotes nationalism, reduces foreign influences, increases
xenophobia
• Illegal crossing of the border becomes more dangerous
• Separation of families, friends, relatives, cultural groups
• Increased protection/security from either real or perceived threat
• Reduced face-to-face interaction between people of neighboring
countries
• Increased virtual communication between people of neighboring
countries
• Reduced migration
Economic Consequences
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cost of construction, maintenance, staffing
Creates jobs: construction, maintenance, staffing
Reduction in flow of illegal goods
Reduction in flow of illegal labor and potential savings
in social costs
Loss of job opportunities for those excluded, less
money earned/sent home, reverse remittances
Loss of cheap labor
Increased cost of smuggling (humans, drugs, other
goods)
Reduced seasonal migration
Now work with a partner to
answer this FRQ:
• a. Identify 2 examples of walls or other barriers built by
countries in the 20th and 21st centuries. (5 pts)
• b. Explain the purpose of one of the examples you identified
in part a. (10 pts)
• c. For each of the categories listed below, discuss one
consequence (positive or negative) faced by countries as a
result of walls or other barriers established along their
borders. (10 pts)
– social or political
– economic
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