Petro-Canada Lubricants - Alberta Forest Products Association

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ENERGY EFFICIENCIES
Maximize The Opportunity – Select the Right Lubricant
ALBERTA FOREST PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION
A Suncor Energy business
SEPTEMBER 2012
OBJECTIVE
• This presentation is to review the opportunities
in reaching energy efficiencies and
prolonging equipment and oil life in the
forestry industry.
– Traditional thinking
• Indoor: Mono-grade oils
• Outdoor: Multi-grade oils
• We will discuss advantages of moving to multigrade lubricants indoors.
1
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
FORESTRY - INDUSTRY TRENDS
• Overall reduction in costs (who isn’t)
• Energy consumption reflects a substantial
operational cost for the Forestry industry
• Hydraulic systems are becoming smaller but more
efficient resulting in higher temperatures and
pressures
• A typical hydraulic pump converts approx 20% of its
horsepower into heat, therefore most fluids run at
elevated temperatures
• Gear design changes to improve efficiency require
gear lubricants to work at higher temperatures.
2
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
• The trends and more severe requirements on
today’s hydraulic and gear systems can and
are met with existing high quality mono-grade
(straight-grade, single-grade) oils.
• However, further improvements in
performance, as well as an added bonus in
energy efficiencies is possible through the use
of non-traditional products multi-grade oils in
indoor applications.
3
FUNCTIONS OF A LUBRICANT
• Reduce Friction
• Minimize Wear (Keep Moving Surfaces Apart)
• Cool Parts (Carry Away Heat)
• Prevent Corrosion
• Disperse Combustion or Oxidation by-products
• Act as a Sealant
• Transmit Power
4
WHY LUBRICATE?
• Lubrication is key when sliding (area) contact is present.
• Lubricants are used to reduce friction and wear by
preventing metal to metal contact.
Steel
Air
Steel
No Lubricant: High Friction
Steel
Oil
Film
Steel
Thin Film (Boundary)
Lubrication: Moderate Friction
5
Steel
Steel
Full Film (Hydrodynamic)
Lubrication: Low Friction
FRICTION - 1986 NRC-ACOT REPORT
• $5 Billion* per year is lost in
Canada due to friction and wear
• 25 - 30% is recoverable with
existing technology
6
*NRC Report published in 1986
FRICTION - 1986 NRC-ACOT REPORT
Friction Losses
($million/year)
Wear Losses
($million/year)
Total Losses
($million/year)
321
940
1,261
Electric Utilities
54
189
243
Forestry
111
158
269
Mining
211
728
940
Pulp and paper
105
382
487
Rail Transportation
284
467
750
Trucks and buses
126
860
986
14
189
203
1,226
3,913
5,139
Agriculture
Wood Industries
TOTALS
7
1986 to 2012 what is the $$ amount today?
Significant opportunity to reduce friction losses
LUBRICANT PROPERTIES
• Viscosity is a measurement of resistance to
flow at one temperature.
• Viscosity Index (VI) is a measurement of the
rate of change of viscosity over a range of
temperatures. In simple terms: it measures
how fast the oil thickens up as it gets colder or
how fast it thins out as it gets hotter.
• Generally the higher the VI the more allseason the product
8
VISCOSITY INDEX
• Viscosity Index is an inherent property of the base oil
used to blend a lubricant.
– Some oils have naturally higher VI than others (i.e. Group II
or synthetics)
• VI can be improved significantly by blending soluble
additives called VI Improvers (VII) into the oil.
• These additives are long polymer molecules which uncoil
at high temperatures to increase viscosity, while at low
temperatures they form tight “balls” which no longer
contribute much to viscosity.
9
Viscosity cSt (LOG-LOG)
VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVER (VII)
Viscosity increase at low
temperatures is relatively small
resulting in cold temperature
viscosity near original base oil.
Base Oil + VII
Multi-grade (all-season) Product
(i.e. Hydraulic MV)
Base Oil
Mono-grade Product
(i.e. Hydraulic AW)
Temperature oC (LOG)
10
Viscosity Index Improver (VII)
additive expands with higher
temperatures resulting in a
higher viscosity at high
temperatures
Potential
reduction based
on shear stability
(i.e. quality) of
VII.
VISCOSITY INDEX IMPROVER (VII)
Viscosity cSt (LOG-LOG)
Gain in effective operating temperature range
Multi-grade Product
(i.e. Hydraulic MV 32)
OEM
Recommended
Operating Range
Mono-grade Product
(i.e. Hydraulic AW 32)
-20
40
Temperature oC (LOG)
11
100
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
• Although all indoor components may see
benefits of multi-grade oils the two biggest
opportunities in the forestry industry are:
– Hydraulics
– Gear systems
12
Viscosity (cSt)
VISCOSITY IMPACT - HYDRAULICS
13
INDUSTRIAL GEAR APPLICATIONS
• Basic Principles
• Rolling at the pitch point
• Sliding occurs above and below the
pitchpoint
Original animation by Doug Wrighte, UWA
Modified by Fluid Life
14
HYDRAULIC PUMP EFFICIENCY
Volumetric Efficiency: All pumps have internal leakage paths.
Mechanical Efficiency: Energy is consumed to rotate pump and overcome
fluid frictional losses.
The amount of mechanical and volumetric loss in a pump is primarily
a function of the fluid’s viscosity and lubricity properties.
15
HYDRAULIC PUMP EFFICIENCY
16
Ref: Evonik Industries
SHEAR STABILITY IS IMPORTANT
17
Ref: Evonik Industries
SHEAR STABILITY IS IMPORTANT
18
Ref: Evonik Industries
OEMS LIMITS ON SHEAR STABILITY
OEM
Eaton/Vickers
Poclain
JCB OEM
Volvo Construction
Parker/Denison
Komatsu HK-1
Caterpillar TO-4
Bosch/Rexroth
Sauer/Danfoss
Din 51524 Part 3/ ISO 6473 HM Type3
Kubota UDT
John Deere
19
Max Shear Loss
10%
20 hr KRL
10%
40 min Sonic
10%
20 hr KRL
12%
20 hr KRL
15%
20 hr KRL
12%
20 hr KRL
15%
20 hr KRL
15%
20 hr KRL
15%
40 min Sonic
15%
40 min Sonic
15%
250 cycle Kurt Orhban
40 min Sonic Vis @ 100C min of 7.2 cst
INDUSTRY - TEST RESULTS
COMPONENT
20
TEST OILS
% ENERGY
SAVINGS
Mono-grade
Multi-grade
Gear Pump
Eaton L2 Series
2550
ISO 46
VI 100
ISO 46
VI 150
>4
Vane Pump
Denison T6C
ISO 46
VI 100
ISO 46
VI 150
>5
Piston Pump
Komatsu HPV
35+35
ISO 46
VI 100
ISO 46
VI 150
>15
Ref: RohMax
INDUSTRY – TEST RESULTS
Source: Evonik Industries
21
INTERNAL HYDRAULIC OIL TESTS
IMPROVEMENT AW vs. MV
6
% Improvement
5
4
3
2
1
0
50
60
70
Temperature C
22
80
9
GEAR OIL TESTS
RESULTS
Losses at 302 Nm
8.5
7.5
9
7
8.5
6.5
8
6
7.5
5.5
5
4.5
4
10
Torque Loss [Nm]
Torque Loss [Nm]
8
GL-5 80W-90
Traxon
XLBlend
Synthetic
Blend
Synthetic
75W-90
75W-90
Synthetic
75W-9075W-90
Traxon
Synthetic
GL-5 80W-90
7
Traxon XL Synth
75W-90
Traxon Syntheti
6.5
6
5.5 20
30
40
50
Temperature [°C]
5
4.5
4
10
23
20
30
Temperature [°C]
40
50
FIELD TEST RESULTS
SAE 10W Mono-grade
Multi-grade ISO 32
Hours of Work / Drain Interval Hours
4000
4000
System Volume (gallons)
67.4
67.4
$/gallon
$11.70
$6.09
$/litre
$3.10
$1.61
Cost of Oil ($)
$789
$411
0%
2.8%
Fuel Consumed (gallons)
24,459
21,114
Fuel Costs ($/gallon)
$2.50
$2.50
Total Fuel ($)
$61,148
$52,785
TOTAL COSTS
$61,936
$53,196
Energy Efficiency Gain
• Test results indicated a fuel savings of 3.8% ($8740)
Field trial done by vendor on a medium size excavator with dual piston pump feeding 3 piston motors
(tracks and swivel) plus boom, stick and bucket cylinders (5000 psi / 345 bar max.) Each product ran for
4 days (~6 hours / day)
24
Results above are extrapolated to 4000 hrs using a Denison T6CM pump (B10 cartridge, 2000 rpm, 200
bar, 70oC) to benchmark field trial products and internal multi-grade. Since the efficiency of the pump is
based on viscometric properties of the fluid at certain temperatures and pressure conditions, data can be
accurately extrapolated from the field trial and bench tests to other products.
SUMMARY
• Significant opportunities are available to improve energy
efficiencies by changing to multi-grade oils in applications
otherwise suitable for mono-grade products.
• Multi-grade hydraulic and gear oils that are shear stable will
maintain viscosity and allow operations to run under wider
temperatures
• Improved shear stability results in improved energy efficiencies
• Although much of the test results shown in this presentation are
related to mobile equipment, the opportunities of energy
efficiencies are relevant to all equipment based on the lubricant
technology.
• Selecting the right multi-grade oil saves money.
25
Thank-you for your time &
interest
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