Growing Fall Tomatoes By Dianne Norman for Wabash Antiques & Feed Presentation Outline • Materials • Location • Raised Beds • Containers • Soil & Compost • Water • Varieties of Tomatoes Initial Materials Needed Amendments Tools & Materials • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Humic Acid (granular) Flower & garden Bed soil Leaf Mold Compost Composted manure MicroLife 6-2-4 Dry Molasses Super Seaweed Minerals Plus (once every 3 years) Shovel Garden rake Stirrup hoe for weeds Wheelbarrow Hose and or drip line Gloves Cinder blocks or other. Location • Close to house if possible. • Availability of water. • At least 5-6 hours of sunshine. • Good drainage. • Check pH of soil. • Soil test if needed Benefits of a Raised Bed • Easier to weed • No tilling required (no soil compaction from stepping on the soil • Easier to work (no bending over) • Build your own soil • Warms earlier in the spring and stays warmer in the fall Raised Beds 1. Get a soil test 2. Clear area for measuring. 3. Place newspapers. 4. Or remove any grass 5. Apply Humate & Dry Molasses to soil. Bed Measurements • Must be a comfortable size • Easy access from both sides of the bed • Raised bed 8’’ to 12’’ • Constructed with durable products • Location with available sunshine Construction Material Brick Wood Plastic Hay Bales Cinder Blocks Benefits of Cinder Block Bed • They provide a nice, wide platform that you can sit on to plant, weed and water. • No drilling or screwing required, just drop into place. • Easily adaptable to form hoop houses, screen plants, • Blocks are surprisingly easy to salvage from random places: vacant lots, behind barns, and wherever else. Containers Earth Box Modular, self-watering planters, such as The Terrazzo line of Planters, & earthbox.com have special reservoirs that help reduce watering chores. Plants can draw moisture from the reservoir whenever they need it. Stock Tanks Galvanized Stock Tanks Poly Stock Tanks Stock Tanks Not just tomatoes, but also squash, cucumbers, peppers, etc... recommend container size as big as 15 gal., especially for tomatoes. Soil & Amendments COMPOST Selecting Compost Thoroughly Composted Material Only • Kitchen scrapes • Leaf Mold Compost • Composted cow manure • Composted horse manure • Composted cotton bur • Composted chicken manure • Rabbit manure (does not need to be composted) Selecting Soil • Native soil can be amended with Humic Acid, Dry Molasses and Compost. • Select soil from reputable companies. • Do not purchase soils containing raw Pieces of wood (un-composted material.) Using this would result in roots dying from tannic acid as the raw wood breaks down. Soil & Compost “How much soil or amendments you need. Multiply the length of the area in feet times the width of the area in feet times the depth (height) of the area in inches, then divide the total by 324 to find how many cubic yards of material. Formula • # of cubic yards = length x width x depth (height) “ / 324. • Average soil depth measurements if beds will be higher in the middle with sloping sides. Soil Preparation • Add 1/3 compost to the volume of soil adds live microbes. • Add dry molasses to multiply beneficials • Humic Acid (granular) to break up clay. • Add Minerals Plus (micro nutrients) • Organic fertilizers (to feed microbes). Water • Well water (can be tested for salinity) • Chloramines are now added to city water. • For watering plants, to counter act chloramines. add Humic Acid to water just enough to tint the water. Humic Acid What does Humic Acid do? Plant bio-stimulants are materials that promote plant growth. The importance of bio-stimulants lies in their ability to promote hormonal activity in plants. Plant hormones are chemical communicators, or agents, which help regulate a plants development and its response to its surrounding environment. Tomato Varieties • Indeterminate or Determinate • For Containers • Heirlooms • Heat Resistant • NEW - Grafted Tomatoes Determinate Tomatoes Tomato plants generally fall into two categories: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate (bush) tomato plants are bred to stop growing usually somewhere around 3'-4' feet tall. When flower blossoms at the tips of the branches, the plant has reached its full height. The fruit of a determinate tomato plant ripens all at once. Since many determinate plants stay on the short side, they can also be ideal for the small-space gardener. Indeterminate Tomatoes Indeterminate tomatoes continue to grow for what seems like indefinitely. Depending on the variety, they can grow from 6'-20' tall. This type continues to produce tomatoes all growing season until a hard frost hits and stops them in their tracks. Fall Tomatoes For Containers Bush Beefsteak A wonderful, compact and prolific, short bushy plant that grows to 3 feet, yields huge amounts of very early producing 8 oz. beefsteak * 62 days * Determinate tomatoes in clusters. A very popular variety for shorter growing * Early Season regions. Fall Tomatoes For Containers Principe Borghese Heirloom Italian heirloom. Short determinate plants that prolifically yield big clusters of 1-2 oz. red, plum shaped, crack-resistant paste tomatoes that are a great substitute for Roma tomatoes. Tomatoes are prized for Days: 78 Size: Determinate Color: Red Season: Mid-Season Type: Heirloom drying because they retain more flavor than most other drying varieties. A great sauce tomato or eating fresh in salads or canning. Fall Tomatoes For Containers Black Sea Man (Heirloom) Potato-leaf plants that yields 12-16 ounce tomatoes that are rich mahogany colored with olive green shoulders when mature. Inside of tomato is deep, reddish green and loaded with excellent, full-bodied, complex, Days: 75 tomato flavors. Outstanding tomato for Size: Determinate sandwiches and salads. This heirloom Color: Purple-Black tomato does well growing in mid-sized Season: Mid-Season Type: Heirloom containers. A great early black tomato. Fall Tomatoes For Containers Better Bush (Hybrid) These big, luscious, 4-inch fruits grow very densely on indeterminate 4-foot plants, thanks to shorter internodes. The central stem rarely needs staking (except during those "bumper crop" times!), Days To Maturity 68 Resistance Fusarium Wilt Race 1, Verticillium Wilt Uses Beds, Cuisine, Outdoor, Containers Fall Tomatoes For Containers Dwarf Champion (Indeterminate Type) Absolute perfect balance in the taste. Rugose leafed, tree-like, and about 4 feet tall. Slightly oblate fruits are pink and averaged about 3 1/2 ozs. 69 days Fall Tomatoes HEIRLOOM • • • • • • • • • Anna Russian Black Cherry Black Krim (black) Carbon Oaxacan Jewel Paul Robeson Pantano Romanesco Lollypop (cherry) Yellow Pear (cherry) • • • • • Hybrid Celebrity Early Girl Homestead 24 Roma (paste) Sungold (cherry) NEW – Grafted Tomatoes MIGHTY MATO’S Why Grafted Tomatoes ? These tomatoes are grafted to hardy, disease resistant rootstock that affords vim and vigor to these tasty fruits. Stronger, faster and more resiliant, these grafted tomatoes use food and water more efficiently making for healthier, tastier, more productive plants! Grafted Tomatoes IMPORTANT: When planting to the garden DO NOT PLANT GRAFT BELOW THE GROUND. Otherwise you may lose the rootstock and the disease resistant qualities. List of Grafted Tomatoes 1. Big Beef: Red globed-shaped 1 lb. fruits have the perfect balance of sweetness and acidity DAYS: 70-75 2. Carmello: Red crack-resistance variety with delicious balance of sugar and acid. Productive even in cooler temps. DAYS: 75 3. Heatwave ll: Round red 7 oz. fruits on disease-resistant, heat tolerant abundant-yield plant. DAYS: 68 4. Early Girl: Bright red 4 to 6 oz. fruits. Early, dependable and flavorful fruit. DAYS: 50-60 List of Grafted Tomatoes 5. Homestead: 8 oz. red fruit are very smooth and uniform with good flavor. Compact and heat tolerant DAYS: 80 6. Ledgend: Round 3” to 4” fruits with good balance of sweet and acid flavor ripen early on cold tolerant plants. DAYS: 80 7. Black Krim: Violet-red 4” to 5” inch fruit withnear black shoulders have intense, smoky flavor. DAYS: 70- 80 8. Mortgage Lifter: Violet-red 4” to 5” inch fruit withnear black shoulders have intense, smoky flavor. DAYS: 85- 95 Shade Cloth Protection To protect tender seedlings From bright sun. Keeps area cooler under shade cloth. 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% www.cloudtops.com 80% 90% Choosing Adequate Shade Cloth 30% shade cloth can help the tomatoes produce longer into the summer and come into the fall production time much healthier. INFORMATION Websites • • • • • • • • www.wabashfeed.com www.urbanharvest.org www.texasplantandsoillab.com www.sanjacorganic.com www.natureswayresources.com www.greenmamma.org www.gardeningknowhow.com http://www.suite101.com/content/organic-straw-balegardening-a85982 Any Questions? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?