BRE Ireland - Leanne McMillan

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Post Occupancy Evaluation of Sustainable
Development Projects in the Education Sector
Leanne McMillan, Senior Consultant, BRE Scotland
Presentation Overview
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Strategic Drivers for POE
POE – Why? What? How?
POE Methodology
Case Studies
Summary and recommendations
POE Strategic Drivers in Education Sector
Core Strategic Drivers
Material Choices
Space Utilisation
Community
Whole Life Cost
Value for
Money?
Economic
Renewable
Technologies
Social Responsibility
Environmental Outputs
Reduction
CO2
POE – Why? What? How?
• Identify any areas of improvement in terms of project
delivery and performance with focus on the potential for
increased efficiencies
• Provide lessons that can be used to improve design of
future projects
• Highlight any gaps in communication and understanding
between the designers, users and building managers that
will impact on the building in operation
• Produce benchmarking data to compare across projects
and to demonstrate progress and continuous improvement
over time
POE Methodology
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Operational Review – 3 - 6 months post project handover
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Functional Performance Review -12-18 months post project handover
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Post project review of design and procurement stage
Initial feedback from occupants on building performance
Sustainability Audit of Functions
Design Quality Matrix
• Architecture
• Environmental Engineering
• User Comfort
• WLC
• Detail Design
• User Satisfaction
Occupant Consultation
Strategic Review – 3-5 years post project handover
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Has building met original business case drivers – i.e. has Value for Money been derived?
Feedback for future projects
Sustainable Design Drivers in Education
• Key business drivers for many Further and Higher Education
establishments include:
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The desire to enhance the learning experience
The provision of fit-for-purpose teaching spaces
Improved learning facilities
Ultimately achieving a low energy, high performing building
• The quality of any building design not only greatly determines the
impact that the building will have on the environment throughout its
lifetime, it also has a significant impact on the occupants:
– Overall health and wellbeing
– Performance
– Productivity of the building occupants
Sustainable Design Drivers in Education
• Optimising the learning environment
– An improvement in learning ability through increased natural daylighting
• Daylighting factors of 4% - 6% can result in an improvement in learning ability
of between 14 and 23%
– An improvement in occupant health and wellbeing through efficient and effective
lighting strategies
• A healthier internal environment and 20-40% reduction in operational costs as
a result of intelligent lighting systems
– An improvement in occupant performance (as a result of thermal comfort modelling)
• For every degree over 27oC, there can be a 10% reduction in occupant
performance
– An improvement on health and wellbeing due to the reduction of VOCs
• Exposure to high VOC emissions can negatively impact on the health of occupants,
particularly those with respiratory problems
– An improvement in occupant response due to an increase in natural ventilation
• Poor air quality levels of 2,700ppm CO2 can result in up to a 14% reduction in
cognitive function
Case Study 1- Project overview
Project
Informed client driving forward an ambitious brief,
focussing strongly on sustainable design
Heating
strategy
Wood pellet biomass boiler feeding underfloor heating
system and wall mounted radiators
Ventilation
strategy
Natural, wind driven, passive stack
Lighting
High frequency, efficient lighting and increased levels
of natural daylight
Material
choices
Low embodied energy ETFE roof, higher than
required thermal insulation, low VOC finishing and
fixtures
Additional
sustainable
design
features
BREEAM Excellent
Rainwater Harvesting
Photo-Voltaic Cells and Solar Thermal
Air Source Heat Pumps
Case Study 1 - Performance
Internal
environment
Air quality: all areas <1000ppm
Lighting: 300-500lux throughout, several thousand
under ETFE
Temperature: Generally between 19 and 21oC
Occupant
satisfaction
Extremely positive occupant feedback
Users consulted and engaged throughout design
stage
All users receive building induction
Occupant ownership
Strong community buy-in
Flexible learning spaces and provision of social
space
Operational
performance
EPC ‘A’ rating, low carbon building
Reduced heating and hot water costs
Achieving significantly reduced water consumption
levels for WCs
Maintenance strategies as forecast
Case Study 1 – Summary of performance
Case Study 2 – Project overview
Project
Client not informed or driven by the concept of
sustainable design, though user comfort and quality
of finishing were a priority
Heating
strategy
Comfort heating and cooling system installed to all
teaching spaces, gas-fired boiler feeding wall
mounted radiators in communal spaces
Ventilation
strategy
Comfort cooling systems and openable external
windows on one wall of all teaching spaces
Lighting
High frequency, efficient lighting in most areas
Adequate levels of natural daylight
Material
choices
Some recycled flooring, fixed external solar shading,
durable materials for high use areas
Additional
sustainable
design
features
Sustainable design features were not a focal point for
this development at the concept and design stages
Case Study 2 - Performance
Internal
environment
Air quality: all areas <1000ppm, though relative
humidity readings suggested some areas could
appear slightly unpleasant
Lighting: 300-600lux throughout, artificial light slightly
over specified
Temperature: Generally between 22 and 26oC
Occupant
satisfaction
Positive occupant feedback
Strong community buy-in
Multiple systems and services in one room can be
confusing for user
Desire to focus more on sustainability
Operational
performance
EPC ‘D’ rating
Energy costs slightly greater than expected due to
design decisions rather than system choices
Maintenance slightly higher than forecast for building
services, though fabric and finishing's are performing
well
Indicative BREEAM ‘Pass’ rating
Case Study 2 – Summary of performance
Case Study 3 – Project overview
Project
Sustainable design was the main driver for this
project, though the client was not best informed
Heating
strategy
Solar thermal panels and a low NOx, efficient gasfired boiler is feeding an underfloor heating system
and the suspended radiant panels in workshops
Ventilation
strategy
All classroom spaces are naturally ventilated through
the provision of openable, external windows
Workshop areas are mechanically ventilated, though
also benefit from openable windows
Lighting
High frequency, efficient lighting in all areas
Local control, sensor control and zoning is minimal
Adequate levels of natural daylight
Material
choice
Responsibly sourced timber used extensively, low
VOC finishing in some areas, recycled flooring in
some parts
Additional
sustainable
design
features
BREEAM Excellent
Rainwater harvesting
Sedum roof
Permeable paving
BEMS
Case Study 3 - Performance
Internal
environment
Air quality: most areas <1000ppm, though relative
humidity readings suggested some areas could
appear slightly unpleasant
Lighting: 350-600lux in construction areas and
850-1200lux in the teaching spaces
Temperature: Generally between 17 and 20oC
Occupant
satisfaction
Mixed occupant feedback
Building is challenging to manage
Occupant control over internal environments could
be improved
Space and layout could be improved
Noise and temperature can be areas of concern
Building services infiltrate learning spaces
Operational
performance
Maintenance significantly higher than forecast for
building services and fabric
Quality of finishing could have been improved
Indicative BREEAM ‘Good’ rating
Case Study 3 – Summary of performance
Summary of Results – Operational review
Key lessons learned:
• Setting the brief
• Project management and support
• Procurement
• Consultation
• Informed client
• Life Cycle Costing
Summary of Results –Functional Performance Review
Key lessons learned:
• Building User Guide
• Commissioning of systems
• Building Energy Management Systems
• Access and maintenance
Summary of Results – Strategic review
Key lessons learned:
• Space – adaptability and flexibility
• Planned maintenance programmes
• Realising operational efficiencies
Recommendations
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Implementing a sustainable framework
Consultation
Room Data Sheets
Commissioning Responsibilities
Modelling and Testing
Access and Maintenance
Building User Guide
BEMS
Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Controls
Operational Efficiencies
Visit Similar Projects
Thank you
Leanne McMillan, Senior Consultant, BRE Scotland
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