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Decontamination procedures
1
General decontamination
• Decontamination prevents spreading of the
contamination.
• Always decontaminate from top to bottom, or from
head to feet.
• At decontamination, water should have a temperature
between 15-35 °Celsius or 59-95 °Fahrenheit.
• Beware of secondary contamination.
2
General decontamination
• Decontamination prevents spreading of the
contamination
• Decontaminating people is meant to prevent further
spreading of the contamination.
3
General decontamination
• Water temperature at decontamination may not be
lower than 15°C or 59°F otherwise this causes
increased chance of hypothermia and increases
adsorption.
• Water temperature at decontamination may not be
higher than 35°C or 95 °F otherwise this causes
increased chance of sweat excretion and increases
adsorption.
4
General decontamination
Always decontaminate form head to feet. When
proceeding in this manner, you keep the
casualties’ head best protected.
• The head is decontaminated first.
• The head cannot be contaminated again during
decontamination.
At decontamination, clean areas must be kept
clean.
Do not use hard brushes
5
General decontamination
Decontaminating personel should wear protective
clothing at all times.
Always install flow of decontamination opposite of
the wind direction, so people cannot be
contaminated anew.
6
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
radiation
External
External
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
7
Contamination
Viral contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Rescue personnel should be vaccinated and clothed in
protective clothing.
• Isolate and/or quarantine people who have been exposed to the
virus, and decontaminate them.
• Destroy contaminated animals and foodstuff, dead animals
should be incinerated or buried.
• Vehicles and persons coming out of the contaminated zone must
be decontaminated.
• Contact between contaminated and clean zone should be kept to
a minimum.
• The least amount possible traffic between the zones.
• No transportation of animals and as little as possible transportation
of people.
8
Contamination
Viral contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Rescue personnel are the first to come in contact
with the casualties and/or the contaminated area,
they must be protected against (secondary)
contamination.
• Rescue personnel must be vaccinated against the particular
case of virus.
• Rescue personnel must be wearing protective clothing.
9
Contamination
Viral contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
People from the contaminated area must be
isolated or be put in quarantine.
• Isolation: People contaminated with the virus must
be kept separated from the rest of the population to
prevent spreading. These people will be
decontaminated and cured of the virus.
• Quarantine: People who have been exposed to the
virus, but have not become ill, will be separated from
the rest of the population to prevent spreading. These
people will be decontaminated.
10
Contamination
Viral contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Animals involved with the virus must be
destroyed.
• Involved animals include:
• Animals from which the virus originates.
• Animals that could be infected with the virus that have lived
in the contaminated area.
• Foodstuffs of animals originating from one of the above
criteria.
• Destruction:
1.Slaughtering of the animals
2.Burning or burying of the animals and foodstuffs.
11
Contamination
Viral contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
To keep spreading of the virus as limited as
possible, it is essential to act as fast as possible.
12
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
The decontamination
area is divided in three
zones;
hot zone
•The hot zone
•The warm zone
hot zone
Wind
•The cold zone
Source
The area is set up in
opposite direction of
the wind direction!
Decon
13
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
Hot zone: This is the
area directly around the
source of the virus. This
is where the virus rages.
Only rescue personnel
wearing protective
clothing may enter this
area.
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
14
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Cold zone
Warm zone: This is the area
Warm zone
Wind
Hot zone
Source
Decon
around the hot zone. The fire
department states what the
measurements of this area are.
Distance from the hot zone to the
cold zone must be at least 25
meters, because certain
substances are able to advance
10 meters against the wind
direction. In this zone, people can
be isolated or quarantined. Life
saving medical treatments and
the decontamination of people
and vehicles will be carried out in
this zone. Medical personnel is
active in this zone. All rescue
personnel wear protective
clothing. Decontaminated peope
and vehicles exit to the cold zone.
15
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
Cold zone: This is the
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
area where the virus is
eliminated. Severely
injured people are
transported to the
hospital with ambulances.
People can be isolated or
quarantined here as well,
under certain
circumstances, abiding
special countermeasures
Source
Decon
16
Contamination
Quarantine and Isolation
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
For putting people in quarantine or isolating them,
you have two options.
•
•
Proceed in the warm zone
Proceed in the cold zone
For putting people in quarantine and isolating
people, the same system can be applied, however,
you cannot keep both groups together in the same
system.
17
Contamination
Warm zone
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
In the warm zone the virus rages outside the
shelter. People must be separated from the
outside world, therefore, overpressure is required
inside the shelter.
Clean air from the cold zone is sucked in and
blown in the shelter. By keeping the pressure
inside the shelter higher than outside, air is
constantly blown out of the shelter.
No contaminated air can get into the shelter.
18
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
19
Contamination
cold zone
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
In case the shelter is placed in the cold zone,
under pressure is required inside the shelter.
Inside the shelter virus rages, but outside the air is
clean. By constantly sucking air out of the shelter
and filtering it, contaminated cannot get out of the
shelter.
Through the underpressure inside the shelter,
clean air is drawn in.
Air drawn out of the shelter can be collected, but
also mixed with the outer air after filtering.
20
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
21
Decontamination of non injured
persons
Contamination
•
•
•
•
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Vaccinate
Administer antiviral agents
Post decontamination checking
Cold zone
22
Decontamination of non injured
persons
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Cold zone:
• Once the casualty is clean and post checked, he/she
may proceed to the cold zone.
Post checking:
• Post decontamination check to ascertain the casualty
is clean. If the casualty is not clean, the
decontamination process must be repeated.
Vaccinate:
• Contaminated people must be vaccinated to lose the
influenza contagion they have acquired.
23
Contamination
Decontamination of injured persons
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Injured persons proceed from the hot zone to the
warm zone.
• Life saving medical treatments are applied.
• Decontaminate.
• Hospital.
24
Contamination
Decontamination of injured persons
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Life saving medical treatments are applied:
• Medical rescue personnel carry out life saving procedures.
Injured persons proceed from the hot zone to the warm zone:
• Injured persons are escorted to the warm zone by the rescue personnel.
When the casualties cannot walk, they will be carried into the shelter.
Decontaminate:
• contaminated injuries are first decontaminated with water and soap with
a neutral pH-value.
Hospital:
• After treating directly life threatening issues, injured persons will be
transported to the hospital, where they will receive further help with their
injuries. After being treated at the hospital for their injuries, they will be
completely decontaminated, and in case of a lowered immunesystem,
will have an antiviral agent administered.
25
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
radiation
External
External
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
26
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
27
Contamination
Chemical decontamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Chemical contamination can be internal and
external by;
• Gasses
• Fluids
• Solids
28
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
The decontamination
area is divided in three
zones;
hot zone
•The hot zone
•The warm zone
hot zone
Wind
•The cold zone
Source
The area is set up in
opposite direction of
the wind direction!
Decon
29
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
hot zone: This is the
area directly around
the source of the
contamination. Only
rescue personnel
wearing protective
clothing may enter this
area.
Source
Decon
30
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
warm zone: This is the area
around the hot zone. The fire
department states what the
measurements of this area are.
Distance from the hot zone to the
cold zone must be at least 25
meters, because certain
substances are able to advance
10 meters against the wind
direction. In this zone, people can
be isolated or quarantined. Life
saving medical treatments and
the decontamination of people
and vehicles will be carried out in
this zone. Medical personnel is
active in this zone. All rescue
personnel wear protective
clothing. Decontaminated peope
and vehicles exit to the cold zone.
31
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
cold zone: This is the
area where there’s no
danger.
hot zone
Severely injured people
are transported to the
hospital with ambulances.
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
32
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
Cut contaminated
clothing on the back
upward. Clothing will
then fall away from the
face.
Do not pull away
clothing which sticks to
the skin due to frostbite
or burns. Have it
removed by qualified
medical personel.
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
33
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Always perform live
saving actions first!
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
34
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
Internal contamination?
Yes
If toxins react with
water use a mineral oil
or oil used for food
preparation.
If toxins react with air,
keep the victim wet at
all times, continuous
showering or using wet
towels, bandages or
alike. In this case, do
not use oils. This might
cause absorption of the
toxins in the skin.
No
Hospital
35
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
If casualties have been
exposed to toxic
gasses, after removing
clothing, there can only
be internal
contamination.
Always transport
casualties to a hospital
for examination.
Contamination
with solids
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
36
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
If casualties have been
exposed to liquid
contaminants, always
check the kind of
liquid(s) and
decontaminate
accordingly.
Clothing and personal
belongings should be
packed in airtight bags
or shelters.
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Provide emergency
clothing after
decontamination.
Hospital
37
Contamination
Contamination with fluids
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Risk of absorption of fluids by the human body can
increase if the following is not taken into account;
• large surface of contact; clothing, blankets...
• temperature increase of the contaminant by body
temperature, remove clothing as fast as possible
• air humidty
• increased room temperatures also may cause
absorption of the contaminants in the skin due to
perspiration and vasodilation.
38
Contamination
Contamination with fluids
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
When contaminated with dangerous fluids, there
are two ways of decontamination;
• Dry decontamination
• Wet decontamination
39
Contamination
Contamination with fluids
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Dry decontamination:
de contaminant is absorbt by tissues or high
absorbing powders.
• Advantages:
• Large quantities can be held in stock
• You can see which body parts already have been
decontaminated
• Wounded and injured can easily be helped on site. They do
not have to be hospitalized.
• Disadvantages:
• Dust clouds caused by powders can harm machines and
electrical equipment.
40
Contamination
Contamination with fluids
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Wet decontamination:
Wash of exposed skin and hair extensively with
luke warm water. Use a mild soap for oily and
highly absorbing chemicals. Wash eyes thoroughly
with water or saline.
Collect the waste water.
41
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
Contact an advisor on
hazardous materials (health
officer).
Clothing and personal
belongings should be packed
in airtight bags or shelters.
Use a soft brush to brush of
the dust and particles. Brush
form head to toe.
Collect the dust and store in a
suitable shelter.
Beware of open wounds.
Decontaminate according to
the directions of the advisor.
Provide emergency clothing.
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
42
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
If a casualty is
(suspected) internally
contaminated, he or
she is to be transferred
to a hospital for
examination. Internal
contamination is to be
treated there.
One van be internally
contaminated by
inhalation, ingestion
and through the skin.
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
43
Chemical contamination
Contamination
Remove clothing
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
Contamination
with solids
radiation
External
contamination
Internal contamination?
Internal
contamination
Yes
No
Hospital
Chemical contamination
Remove clothing
Perform life-saving actions
Contamination
with gas
Contamination
with fluids
If there is no internal
contamination, the
person is
decontaminated and
clean. The person can
be transferred to the
cold zone.
Contamination
with solids
Internal contamination?
Yes
No
Hospital
44
Chemical decontamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot
zone
• Stabilize and decontaminate victims
• Hospital
45
Chemical decontamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Emergency rescue collects victims from the hot zone
Non ambulant victims will be carried out on stretchers.
Near de line between the hot zone and the warm zone
clothing will be removed from the casualty. Clothing will be
stored in airtight bags or shelters. Casualties will be
transferred to the warm zone on a clean stretcher.
Casualties who can walk by themselves will be handed
over to the medical personnel. They also will have there
clothing removed and packed.
46
Chemical decontamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Stabilize and decontaminate victims
In the warm zone casualties will be stabilized and
partially decontaminated whereafter they will be
transferred to a hospital.
47
Chemical decontamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Hospital:
In hospital casualties will be decontaminated
completely and there injuries and wounds will be
attended to.
48
Chemical decontamination
non injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot
zone
• Decontaminate victims
• Hospital or cold zone
49
Chemical decontamination
non injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Emergency rescue collects the victims from the hot
zone
After collecting the victims from the hot zone,
emergency rescue lead them to the decon area.
The victims will be received and assisted by the
decon personnel.
50
Chemical decontamination
non injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Victims will be decontaminated.
First clothing will be removed and packed in airtight bags or
shelters.
The victims will be showered and provided with emergency
clothing. They will be examined. If not fully decontaminated
they will be showered again; three times maximum. More
will make no difference. In due time decontamination will
the disappear as the skin renews itself.
Internal contaminated victims will be sent to hospital.
51
Chemical decontamination
non injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
To hospital or cold zone:
Internal contaminated victims will be sent to
hospital.
If the victim is clean he or she can proceed to the
cold zone.
52
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
radiation
External
External
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
53
Contamination
Biological contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Emergency personnel has to wear protective
clothing, eye protection and breathing protection
when there is risk of inhalation.
Emergency personnel is to vaccinated at first,
before coming into action.
54
Contamination
Biological contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
De sequence of decontamination is the same as
with chemical decontamination.
Same system is used as is the setup of the area.
Injured and non injured are treated the same way
as in chemical decontamination.
55
Contamination
Biological contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
In some cases it may be needed to vaccinate or
use of antivirals and antibiotics is required.
A medical expert on infectuous diseases can
provide decisive answers.
Always contact the medical expert when there is
biological contamination.
56
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
radiation
External
External
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
57
Contamination
Radioactive decontamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
When a victim only is exposed to radiation it’s
called external radiation.
The victim can not be decontaminated.
58
Contamination
Radioactive decontamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
If there is a radioactive substance on the body of
the victim, there is external contamination.
Decontamination is essential.
59
Contamination
Radioactive decontamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
If there is a radioactive substance inside the body
of the victim, there is internal contamination.
Decontamination is essential.
60
Radioactive contamination
External contamination
Wounded
Not wounded
Contamination
External contamination
Inhalation
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
Ingestion
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Radioactive contamination
External contamination
Wounded
Not wounded
External contamination
Inhalation
Ingestion
61
External radioactive contamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
At first clothing is to be removed. Remove clothing
away from the face. Keep away from body parts
whish are not contaminated.
Store clothing in an airtight (double) bag or
suitable shelter.
62
External radioactive contamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
First the most contaminated wounds are to be
treated. Wash the wounds with saline or oxidized
water. Have the wounds bleed out (under venous
occlusion if needed).
63
External radioactive contamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
If the wounds are contaminated with solvent
radionuclides, use of correct medicine or treatment
has to be started as soon as possible.
64
External radioactive contamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
When needed the victim will be transferred to a
hospital.
If there is severe decontamination of the wound,
contaminated tissue may be surgically removed.
Amputation will only be performed in a few
occurences.
65
External radioactive contamination
injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
After decontaminating the wounds, commence
decontaminating the body as if it where a non
injured person.
Treatment of radioactive contaminated burns is to
be done in a specialized facility (burns centre).
66
External radioactive contamination
non-injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
At first use luke warm water and soap (neutral pH)
in combination with soft brushes and sponges.
If the result is not sufficient you can use a more
powerful (freely obtainable) product.
67
External radioactive contamination
non-injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
If the contamination is more than skindeep. You
could use peeling cremes, but avoid scrubbing.
68
External radioactive contamination
non-injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Skin which is not contaminated can be covered
with adhesive plastic foil, Vaseline or spray
bandages. The possibility of contamination of
these parts will me minimized.
69
External radioactive contamination
non-injured people
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Washing and showering to a maximum of 3 times.
More is not effective. Remaining contamination will
dissapear as the skin renews itself.
70
Internal radioactive contamination
inhalation
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Internal contamination only can be treated in a
hospital.
71
Internal radioactive contamination
inhalation
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
After live saving actions performed by the
emergency rescue personnel, the victim is to be
transferred to a hospital.
72
Internal radioactive contamination
inhalation
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
In hospital the casualty will be decontaminated
internally and externally. The casualties wounds
will be treated.
73
Internal radioactive contamination
inhalation
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
On inhalation the method of decontaminating is a
lung lavage.
74
Internal radioactive contamination
ingestion
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
If the contamination of the intestines occurred
recently, intubations or the use of emetics can be
administered.
75
Internal radioactive contamination
ingestion
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Less recent contaminations may be treated with
laxatives. In some cases this even may reduce the
absorption of isotopes.
Also medicines which can improve the excretion of
water by the kidneys may be used.
76
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
The decontamination
area is divided in three
zones;
hot zone
•The hot zone
•The warm zone
hot zone
Wind
•The cold zone
Source
The area is set up in
opposite direction of
the wind direction!
Decon
77
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone: This is the
area directly around the
source of the
contamination. Only
rescue personnel wearing
protective clothing may
enter this area.
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Emergency personnel
determines the protective
provisions applicable for
and the outline of the
area.
Decon
78
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
Warm zone: the area
around the hot zone.
Emergency rescue
determines size and
distance. Live saving
activities and
decontamination are
performed in this area.
Medical personnel is
active in this area. All
emergency and mdical
personnel is wearing
protective clothing.
Decontaminated victims
are going to the cold
zone or directly to a
hospital.
79
Contamination
The Area
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
cold zone
Cold zone: hazard free
area. Heavily injured
victims are transferred
to hospital.
hot zone
Wind
hot zone
Source
Decon
80
External radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Emergency rescue collects victims from the hot zone
• Decontamination
• Cold zone
81
External radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Emergency rescue brings wounded non amabulant
victims to the medical personnel in the warm zone
• Ambulant victims are directed to the medical
personnel by the emergency rescue personnel
• Victims are treated on the wounds en will be
decontaminated.
• Casualties will be transferred to hospital
82
External radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Non injured victims will be direct to the decon area
where they will be decontaminated.
The will be inspected. If still contaminated they will
be decontaminated again.
83
External radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Decontaminated persons will enter the cold zone.
They are clean.
84
Internal radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
• Emergency rescue collects victims form the hot zone
• Hospital
85
Internal radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Emergency rescue collects victims form the hot
zone. They will bring victims with (suspected)
internal contamination to the medical personnel.
Non ambulant victims will be carried on a stretcher,
ambulant victims will be directed.
86
Internal radioactive
decontamination
Contamination
Viral
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive
contamination
contamination
contamination
contamination
Internal
Internal
External
External
External
radiation
External
contamination
Internal
contamination
Victims will receive live saving treatment if needed.
They will be transferred to hospital. In hospital the
will be internally en extarnally decontaminated.
After this their wounds and injuries will be attended
to.
87
Decontamination procedures
88
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