Dr. Bir Pal Singh, Director, CPRI, Shimla.

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Status and issues in Potato Production
STATUS
Current Scenario
India is producing 41.3 m tons (2011-12) from
1.9 m ha at an average productivity of 22.1 t/ha.
2.8 m tons (7.5%) of the produce is processed.
2.96 m tons (8.5%) of the produce is used as
seed.
0.1 m tons are exported
Post harvest losses are nearly 16% of the total
produce.
Major factors that contributed to
the growth of potato in India
Varietal development – Developed 49 high yielding varieties
for all regions and seasons.
Establishment of Indigenous seed production system –
Seed production shifted from the hills to the northern plains
to cater to the large demand of seed.
Growth in cold stores capacity – Helped in storing and
maintaining the supply chain in off season across the country.
Varietal development
Early
(70-80 days)
Northern hills
9
Northern plains
Medium
(90-100 days) 30
Plateau
7
4
6
14
3 3 1
Darjeeling hills 3
Late
(100-110 days) 10
Southern hills
3 2
Processing-6
Heat Tolerance-1
3
Indigenous Seed
production system
Agro-techniques of seed plot technique
- Seed Treatment
- Presprouting
- Early planting
- Mechanization for faster
cultural operations
- Control of aphid vectors and
diseases through regular sprays
- Rouging
- Haulms cutting before the aphid
count reached critical levels.
Growth
in
cold
stores capacity
Growth of cold stores
enabled reaping the
benefits
of
higher
yield due to seed plot
technique
Future Targets
Potato production estimates for the next
40 years
Particulars
Area
(Mha)
Production
(Mt)
Productivity
(t/ha)
2010
1.82
35.21
19.35
2025
2.02
56.15
27.71
2050
3.62
124.88
34.51
ISSUES
 Wide gap in attainable and actual yields how to bridge it?
 Area expansion – Tropicalization ?.
 Low availability of quality seed.
 High Post harvest losses.
 Increased diseases and Pests pressure.
 Climate change – how to manage?
Yield gaps between attainable yields and actual yields how bridge it?
Developed a simulation model
which would enable estimation of
climatic potential for yield, for
estimation of yield gaps and
climate change studies.
Potential Yield (t/ha)
Large areas in the Indo Gangetic
plains and the neighbouring states
have similar and high yield potential
Yield Gap Analysis Results (t/ha)
States with high yield and reasonable yield gap
Over All
UP
Bihar
Punjab
& Haryana
WB
Gujarat
Average_Pot_Yield
58.65
57.6
47.41
58.15
51.73
Actual_Yield
22.47
18.11
21.63
21.03
25.24
Yield_gap_attainable (%)
52.11
60.7
42.97
54.79
39.0
The yield gap is around
50%.
Through
better
irrigation
systems
and
nutrient delivery systems
this gap could be bridged
e.g. Gujarat
States with high yield potential but high yield gap
Over All
Odisha
MP
Rajasthan
Chattisgarh
Jharkhand
Average_Pot_Yield
57.16
59.0
56.7
59.25
62.18
Actual_Yield
13.05
12.9
10.58
12.06
11.26
71.4
72.6
76.6
74.5
77.3
Yield_gap attainable (%)
The yield gap is wider (around 70%)
Here the stresses are due to
 Seed quality
 Pests
and
diseases
(BW,
Whiteflies, Thrips, mites, PTM)
 Water
 Nutrients
How can the production targets be realised in the
context of impending climate change?
 Impact of climate change on potato production has been assessed – Under
no adaptation
 Yield decline in India will be 2.6% by 2020 and 15.3% by 2050
 Impact of climate change will be positive in NW plains, slightly negative in
NE plains and severely negative in plateau regions.
 Change in date of planting is the best adaptation strategy and in Punjab
and Western UP it is likely to increase or sustain the tuber yield in 2020
and 2050
 In Eastern UP and Bihar the delayed DOP might sustain the potato
production with only minor losses (0-10%)
Future Varietal Requirements
 Short duration varieties which can fit in cereal based
cropping system
 Heat tolerant varieties to enable spatial diversification of
potato to non traditional areas and to minimize the impact
of climate change
 Varieties with multiple disease resistance (WB, LB, Viruses)
 Processing varieties to meet the growing demand of the
consumers
-
Short duration
High resistant starch content
Cold induced sweetening resistant
Specialty potatoes
Transgenic approach for managing late blight
Silencing of Avr3a effector gene of P. infestans using RNAi approach
14
RQ Value of AVR3a gene
12
10
8
RQ 2155
6
K. pukhraj control
4
2
0
1
K. Pukhraj SI2AS1 2155 & K. Pukhraj control
2
3
4
5
Days Post-inoculation
6
Relative Expression of Avr3a gene in transgenic
K. Pukhraj SI2AS1 2155
Using RNAi technology developed potato lines having high degree of
resistance to late blight
Use of Cis-genic approach for managing late blight
 Rb – gene was used for
developing LB resistant
hybrids
 Out of 120 hybrids, 5
have been selected
 Evaluated hybrids in
screening chamber and
containment
 LB severity varies from
5-22% as against of ≥80%
in control
 Higher yielder (33-133%)
Development of varieties with multiple disease resistance
Combined resistance to Late blight,
Nematode (PCN) is under way:
viruses
and

Late blight, viruses and Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN)
resistant lines identified using molecular markers.

Combining
above
three
conventional breeding.

Results:
resistances
Potato
Cyst
through
Triplex clone (YY 6/3 C-11)
i.
Few segregating
identified.
ii.
Development of advanced hybrids (LBY-15 & LBY-17)
having combined resistance to late blight and Potato
Virus Y.
iii.
Identified 14 elite parental potato lines possessing
multiple disease resistance genes.
iv.
A parental line having PVY extreme resistance gene
(Ryadg) in triplex state developed through molecular
markers.
lines
with
combined
resistances
Advanced potato hybrids
Phenotyping
of
K.Surya
0
K.Chandramukhi at 24 C night
temperature with respect to
tuberization
LB
SacI
NosT
17.6 Kda HSP
KS 0 Day - 17.6 HSP
KS 0 Day - DnaJ
kS 0 Day - HSP70
kS 0 Day - HSP40
kS 0 Day - CHL-1
kS 0 Day - HSPP
kS 0 Day - CHL-11
kS 0 Day - 101 Kda
KS 17 Day - 17.6 HSP
KS 17 Day - DnaJ
kS 17 Day - HSP70
kS 17 Day - HSP40
kS 17 Day - CHL-1
kS 17 Day - HSPP
kS 17 Day - CHL-11
kS 17 Day - 101 Kda
KS 21 Day - 17.6 HSP
KS 21 Day - DnaJ
KS 21 Day - HSP70
KS 21 Day - HSP40
KS21 Day - CHL-1
KS 21 Day - HSPP
KS 21 Day - CHL-11
KS21 Day - 101 Kda
Relative expression of HSP genes
Development of heat tolerant potato cultivar
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Fig 1: Response of KS Potato cultivar at 24 0 C temperature
condition
Real time PCR analysis of KS and KCM revealed the 30
fold Higher expression of 17.6 Kda HSP gene (out of 8
potato HSP gene) over KCM.
Xba
I
Hind
III
CaMV 35S
RB
NosT
17.6Kda HSP gene Map
npt II
Nos P
Reduction of cold induced sweetening in processing cultivar
using RNAi approach
Control
2214
2013
2311
5.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
Fresh harvest
7.5
2.5
Silencing of invertase
gene in K.Chipsona 1 by
using RNAi technology
3.5
4.5
Cold stored for 90 days
2123
2262
1.0
2.0
4.5
3.0
Genotype
% reduction in invertase activity
K. Chipsona-1 control
0.0
KChipInvRNAi-2214
89.82 ± 5.66
KChipInvRNAi-2013
83.43 ± 8.24
KChipInvRNAi-2311
81.58 ± 7.81
KChipInvRNAi-2123
67.46 ± 4.34
KChipInvRNAi-2262
77.26 ± 6.52
How to meet the seed requirement to realise the
genetic potential?
 Multiplication in Foundation and certified seed production stages
not as per desired rate
 Solution - Public – Private Partnership
 Identify suitable sites in non traditional areas for seed production
 Development and exploitation of new technologies
New Seed Production Technologies (Micro Propagation)
Microplants
Culturing in liquid media
Microtuber in vitro
Microtubers
Microtubers: 50-60% survival
Minitubers
Field multiplication-1
Field multiplication-2
Basic or Breeder Seed
Aeroponic based seed production system
Adopt ecological niche modelling techniques to
identify sites suitable for seed production in
non traditional areas
Sites suitable for seed
production through seed
plot technique (similar to
the Indo Gangetic plains)
exists in the North
eastern states and can
greatly alleviate seed
deficiency of the area
How to minimise the post harvest losses?
 Post harvest losses are to the tune of 16% of the total production.
 Varieties with improved keeping quality.
 Storage loses: Pre and post cold store losses by elevate temperature
technology
 Transportation losses: use of refer varieties.
 Packaging?
 On site storage?
 Uniform distribution of cold stores
Thank You
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