MCA Presentation Mortar Batching

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The Mortar Batching Course
For
Brick & Block Laying
2001
CONTENTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Section 1 – Exposure Grades
Section 2 – Volume Batching
Section 3 – Mortar Testing
Section 4 – Materials In Mortar – AS 3700
Section 5 – Water And Additives
Section 6 – Cement Chemistry
Section 7 – All about Bricks & Blocks
Section 8 – Brick ties
Introduction
Why was this course was created?
On the 7th of December 1989 an earthquake of substantial measure devastated the city of
Newcastle in NSW Australia. Many long-standing structures suffered severe damages along with
buildings that were only a few years old. The fact that many buildings were built recently
demanded a revision of the current Australian Standards for Brick & Block Mortar and for some
detailed research into their intricate chemistry.
This research was conducted at Newcastle University. At the time of the earthquake there were,
and still are numerous publications available on the compositions of Concrete and Cement
characteristics, however there was little available that was published on Brick & Block Mortars.
Obviously there are now many fine publications available in the market place to accompany the
current published Australian Standard AS3700. The problem is that most of the information in
these texts is aimed at Engineers, Architects or Chemists.
There has not been a document written to communicate to the individuals who mix the cement
mortar on site, as to what to do and what not to do according to the Australian Standards and
manufacturers recommendations.
Therefore …….
This course aims to communicate the relevant information available in the previously mentioned
publications and deliver them to you within the confines of a 3-hour session.
You will take away this manual as an easy on site weatherproof reference book and leave this
course with a certificate of completion. In a few days you will also receive a wallet size Mortar
Batchers card with your photo id and a member number.
Your details will also go onto a data base at the Masonry Contractors of NSW,so that Brick laying
companies can contact you for your services and that the MCA can send you out any relevant
changes to the Australian standards or industry news that relates directly to your job.
Batcher’s Certificate
Name:
Peter Smith
Completed: 27/10/00
So you can smile when we take your photo today, as this course will make you more employable
than you already are!
Brick & Block Mortar
Batchers Certificate
Under the Guidelines of AS3700 Standards Australia
Awarded to
Fred Bloggs
Signature
– – MCA President
Garry Roberts
Date
Certificate #: 001
Current Affairs and News programs from time to time like to run articles on “shoddy
workmanship” in the building industry, they show a family or struggling couple who are
unhappy with a particular builder and the builder is usually always named.
The following videotape is one of these news stories. We will have a ten-minute open
discussion at the end of it. Pay attention to the section showing the crumbling mortar at the
bottom wall of the garage to the slab and see if you can pick the problem that the current
affairs program doesn’t.
Ten-Minute Open Forum
Was there any other problems that the affairs program didn’t notice?
1. Exposure Grades
Questions
What materials are regulated by exposure grade?
How do these exposure grades affect my work place?
Where is the most expensive real estate situated in Australia?
Mortar, Bricks, Blocks and Brick Ties are all manufactured to
exposure grades.
Companies such as Rocla, Austral,Bowal Bricks, Boral Clay Pavers,Boral Concrete
Masonry, CSR PGH & ABEY Ties manufacture bricks, blocks and brick ties. The
bricks, blocks and ties are all provided to your work site having been specified by
the buildings designer based on the proximity of the building to a marine or
exposed environment.
The manufacturer of Mortar on site is …
You!
Exposure Grading Awareness According to the Australian
Standard AS3700 (Table 10.1)
In June 1998 the following exposure grades were published in Standard AS3700. ( The
easiest way to check your site for an exposure grade is with a street directory.)
Mortar Classifications –AS 3700
M1
M2
M3
M4
•Used only in restoration work to match existing construction.
•Mild Environments.
•Interior environments – Above dampcourse and enclosed within the building.
•Above dampcourse in non-marine exterior environment with waterproof coating and
other building elements protecting masonry.
•Below dampcourse and protected from water ingress by impermeable membrane.
• Remote from the coastline.
•Interior environments subject to non-saline wetting and drying.
•Above and below the dampcourse in non-aggressive soils.
•Marine environments.(100m to 1 km from a non surf coast and 1km to 10 km of a surf coast).
•Freshwater environments.
•Interior environments subject to saline wetting and drying.
•Below dampcourse in aggressive soils.
•In severe marine environments (up to 100 metres non-surf coast and up to 1 km surf coast.
•Within 1 km of industry which produces chemical pollutants.
•Especially aggressive environments, e.g.. Subject to attack by corrosive liquids and gases.
The ABEY Tie company have provided the following graphic to give
you an idea of how these exposure grades look in a more diagrammatic form.
M4
M3
M2
M2
Mortar Exposure Grades
MORTAR MIX PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME - AS 3700
M2 Mortar M3 Mortar M3 Mortar
M4 Mortar
M4 Mortar
(with Lime)
(with Lime)
(with Water
Thickener)
(with Water
Thickener)
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
Cement
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Lime
2
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
Sand
9
8
6
5
5
No
No Opt Opt Yes
Water
Thickener
0.5 0.25
4 4.5 2.2 4 3
5 Yes Yes
Yes Opt Opt
Brick Tie Exposure Grades AS3700
EXPOSURE
GRADES AS3700
WALL TIES
STEEL SHEET TIES
STEEL WIRE TIES
Severe Marine
Environments
0 -1Km (SURF)
Severe Marine
Environments
0-100m ( N0 SURF)
Marine
Environment
1-9 KM ( Surf )
Marine
Environment
100m-1 KM
(No Surf )
Mild Environment
Moderate
greater than 10 km
Environment
from Surf & Non
1-9KM (NO SURF)
Surf
316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel
(R3)
(R3)
(R3)
(R3)
Hot Dipped Galvanised Hot Dipped Galv anised Galvanised Z600
Galvanised Z600
to 470G/M2
to 470G/M2
(R2)
(R2)
316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
(R4)
304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel
(R3)
(R3)
(R3)
(R3)
Hot Dipped Galvanised Hot Dipped Galv anised Hot Dipped Galvanised Hot Dipped Galvanised
to 470G/M2
to 470G/M2
to 470G/M2
to 470G/M2
Brick & Block Exposure Grades
Severe
Severe
Moderate
Mild
Marine
Marine
Marine
Marine
Environment
Environments
Environments
Environments
Environments
Environments
0-1km
(SURF)
0-100m
(NO SURF)
1-9 kms
(SURF)
100m - 1km
(NO SURF)
1-9kms
(NO SURF)
Greater than 10kms
from Surf and Non Surf
BRICKS
Exposure Grade
Exposure Grade
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
CONCRETE BLOCKS
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
General Purpose
Note : Concrete blocks will comply to exposure grade after they have coated with a
suitable waterproof coating. Some non exposure grade bricks will also comply if treated
with an impermeable surface coating.
And you have probably guessed the whole point already, the most expensive real estate in Australia is
right on the coast line in the most severe marine environment that a structure can be exposed to!
It is the affect of salt particles on mortar brick joints, bricks and ties that has the most detrimental
result on these materials. Yet the question must be asked that if we chose just a 500 km section of the
coastline say encompassing Newcastle, Sydney and Wollongong and visited every Surf Club and took
note of how old there are?
What they were built out of and where they are located we would discover that: (a) many have been
built out of bricks and blocks (b) many structures are in excess of 30 years of age and (c) that a lot of
these clubs are practically located on the sands of some beaches. So this throws up yet another lot of
questions.
Questions such as what has changed in the last 30 years that has made our end product today not as
durable as work completed many years ago? Especially when we know technology has been working
to improve Cements, Limes,Brick Ties, Bricks, Blocks and Sand. We will address some of the reasons
and probabilities later on in the course.
2. Volume Batching
Correct Volume Mixing
By far one of the most contentious and debated issue of mixing mortar is correct volume mixing.
The standard AS3700 advocates volume mixing by equal measuring buckets or box only. We all
know that the most common use of mixing into an onsite barrel type portable mixer is by shovel.
Shovel mixing is the easiest way to attain erratic volume levels and hence colour and strength
variance in a mortar mix.
If you are going to still mix with a shovel after today and this course has not convinced you to
volume batch by bucket, then at least consider this advice. If you are using a standard 3.5 cubic foot
mixer always make sure that you put at least the volume of 20 kgs of Cement into the mixer first!
Ideally it should be a GP cement, you can still overdose the mix with sand but you have less chance if
you place a half 40 kg bag or a full 20 kg bag of cement into the mixer first.
Some mixes being tested in the market place are as high as 19 to 1 after testing. Many houses that
should be lived in by now are having to be pulled down, rebuilt or repaired all because correct
batching did not occur.
Note: Shovel mixing is not the industry recommendation of best work-place practice.
The difference between weight and volume is what engineers and technical type people call the
difference between “specific gravity” and “mass density”, but as we are not incredibly technical
type people we will leave those terms alone.
So here is a way of describing weight against volume batching.
Fact - A bucket of completely dry sand weighs slightly more than a bucket of wet sand!
Reason - There are no water particles in the bucket of dry sand so that there is extra room for
more sand particles which are heavier than water particles. Scientists figure that why sand sits
on the bottom of the ocean. We will get into moisture content in sand later on in water to cement
ratio.
Fact - A 25 kg bag of hydrated lime is larger in size than a 40 kg bag of cement.
Reason - the particle size of the lime is larger than the particle size of the cement. Because of
this, just with the sand and water the extra dimensions in the bag of lime are taken up with air
particles, cement, has a denser smaller particle so there is less room for air a bag of cement.
More Questions
What’s wrong with batching with a shovel?
I’ve batched with shovels for years!
The answer is on the following slide in 2,000 words!
2 Pictures are worth 2,000 words
Effects of bulking on shovels of cement (left) and sand (right)
Note: Photos reproduced courtesy of the Clay Brick & Paver Institute publication
“Construction Guidelines for Clay Masonry”
Remember volume mixing has nothing to do with weight
6
Sand
+
1
Cement
+
1
Lime
=
M3
Mortar
Volume not weights!
Let us go over old ground already and examine the required volume batches for
the mortar grade M2, M3 and M4.
MORTAR MIX PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME - AS 3700
M2 Mortar M3 Mortar M3 Mortar
M4 Mortar
M4 Mortar
(with Lime)
(with Lime)
(with Water
Thickener)
(with Water
Thickener)
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
GP
GB
Cement
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Lime
2
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
Sand
9
8
6
5
5
Water
Thickener
No
No Opt Opt Yes
Which brings us to our next section.
0.5 0.25
4 4.5 2.2 4 3
5 Yes Yes
Yes Opt Opt
3. Testing Mortar
How is the mortar that I mix tested?
The properties that mortars are tested for in in-situ masonry when required are:
(i)
(ii)
Tests for either Compressive (durability) or Flexural Strength (bond)
Tests for its Cement and Lime Content
The Bond Wrench Test
The Bond wrench (or flexural strength) test is the primary testing apparatus for the testing of
mortars. By testing bond strength, results can be measured on the probability of a structure moving
from forces such as earthquakes.
(Pass around bond wrench tester.)
Diagram courtesy of Clay Brick & Paver Institute publication”Construction Guidelines for Clay Masonry”
The Stack Bond Beam Test
The stack bond beam test is a compressive strength (or Mortar Durability) test. It is
conducted by making a beam of bricks stuck together by perpendicular mortar joints. A
force is the applied to the bricks until a the mortar joint breaks. The force of the break is
then measured. The stack bond beam test is rarely carried out and therefore little
information or visual images are available. It is the bond wrench test which has greater
accuracy and measurability and is therefore become the primary measure of the industry.
Also the bond wrench test can be carried out on completed work see below photo, where
as the stack bond beam can only be done at the time of mortar mixing with a controlled
sample.
LOAD
Testing Mortar for Lime and Cement Content
Testing of Mortar for Lime and Cement Content falls under the standard of AS2701 “Methods
of testing Mortar for Masonry Construction”. The standard can only best be understood by
laboratory chemists. Determination for Lime and cement content and consequently calcium
oxide crystals is devised by a complicated process of breaking down the chemical content of the
mortar by reacting the samples with various chemicals and solutions (e.g. hydrochloric acid)
then drying them and reacting them with the mortar and weighing their remaining contents.
The testing for these properties would take a lab technician the best part of an 8 hour shift to
determine a cement and lime content. It should go without saying that if correct lime and
cement contents are used from the beginning that there will never be a need for a mortar to be
tested. Anything less than an 80% result of the prescriptive mortar is a fail!
The Difference between Concrete and Mortars for Bricks and Blocks
Mortars and Concretes have basically the same primary ingredients cement ,water and
aggregates. In the case of Concrete there are fine and course aggregates. Blue metal or stone
is your coarse aggregate and concrete sand is your fine aggregates. There should also be a
grading as fine aggregates within concrete sand but not as complex as the grading that we
require for mortar which we will discuss in our sand topic in the materials section.
The main difference between Mortar for Bricks and Blocks against a Concrete is that the
mortar must form a solid rock like finish but also act as a GLUE between bricks and blocks.
The amount that your mortar works like a glue is tested in the bond wrench test. The
amount of mortar durability and how your finished mortar hardens like a concrete is judged
under the mortars exposure grade. We will show the uses of lime in mortar later on in
materials and chemistry. Cement experts have constantly agreed that wherever
there is a strong bond between mortar and brick/block that there is a high
presence of calcium hydroxide crystals. The greatest sources of calcium
hydroxide is in GP Cement & Builders Lime.
Quote: we cannot yet dismiss the possibility that calcium
hydroxide crystals contribute to the strength of Portland
Cement.(Chemistry of Cement & Concrete Frederick M
Lea 3rd edition)
Time for a ten minute
break
100
4. Materials In Mortar – AS 3700
Materials Under AS3700 (10.4.2)
10.4.2.1 Cement and Building Lime
Cement and Building Lime shall comply with the following Australian Standards:
(a)
Portland (Type GP) and Blended (Type GB)
Cements…………………….….………………………………..AS3972
(b)
Limes for Building……………………………………………….AS1672.1
(c)
Masonry Cement…………………………………………………AS1316
What ever happened to Type “A”Cement?
In 1991 standard terminology of cements were changed to reflect a more common usage in wider world
markets. The old Type A,B,C ,D and so on standards were primarily based on the chemical constitution
of the cement products. The new standards introduced in 1991 now require Cements used in Australia
to be more performance based other than their individual chemical ingredients. So in answer to the
above question ,what happened to Type A ?
The following Table reveals the answer:
Changes To Cement Types - 1991
OLD CODE
NEW CODE
NEW NAME
PRIMARY USER OR PURPOSE
Type A
Type
GP
General Purpose
Concretes, Mortars, Grouts and Adhesives
Type B (Also Type
A Fine)
Type
HE
High Early Strength
Type C
Type
LH
Low Heat
Type D
Type
SR
Sulfate Resitant
Concretes, Grouts, Mortars.
(where a High early strength gain is required within the first week)
Concretes
(where Low Hydration temperatures are specified)
Sewerage Pipe Repair work, Marine and Ocean Cements
Concretes
(to resist chloride ingress)
Used in Special Purpose Mortars and Grouts
Slagblend/Flyash
(FAB)
Type
GB
Blended or Builders
Cements
Concretes, Mortars and Grouts
Please Note:
Type HE, LH and SR are classified as Special Purpose Cements under the Standard AS 3972 for cement. It should
be noted that exposure grades in AS 3700 only deal with Type GP and GB Cements.
Packing, Marking & Delivery of Bagged Cement – AS 3972
Packing and delivery – Bagged cement shall be delivered in sound packages undamaged
by moisture or other defects.
Marking – Where the unit package size is less than 100 kg, each package shall be legibly
marked with the following:
(a)
Name of manufacturer.
(b)
Type of cement.
(c)
Nominal proportion of slag, fly ash or silica fume in the case of blended
cement.
Occupational Health & Safety
As this course is a mortar standards awareness course (not an OH&S
course) the manufacturers of cements, sands, brick ties, bricks and
blocks can all provide material safety data sheets on requests. All
safety warnings on bags of cement, lime and sand should be observed
Properties and Characteristics for Portland and Blended Cements
AS 3972 – 1997
Setting Time (AS
2350.4)
Soundness
(AS 2350.5)
SO3 content
(AS 2350.2)
Compressive strength
(AS 2350.11)
min. MPa at
Type of
Cement
Peek
Temperature
Rise
(AS 2350.7)
Expansion
(AS 2350.14)
max.
microstrain
at
Shrinkage
(AS 2350.13)
max.
microstrain
Min.
Minutes
Max.
H
Max.
Mm
Max. %
3
days
7
days
28
days
Max. ºC
16 weeks
exposure
28 days
45
10
5
3.5
-
25
40
-
-
-
45
10
5
3.5
-
15
40
-
-
-
Special
Purpose
45
10
5
3.5
20
30
-
-
-
-
Type HE
45
10
5
3.5
-
10
30
23
-
-
Type LH
45
10
5
3.5
-
15
30
-
900
-
Type SR¹
45
10
5
3.5
-
20
30
-
-
750
General
Purpose
Type GP
Type GB
Type SR²
NOTES:
1.
The use of Type SR cement may not ensure sulfate resistance in cement applications. In addition, other significant factors, including water content,
compaction, and curing should be considered.
2.
The use of Type SL cement may not ensure low drying shrinkage in cement applications. In addition, other significant factors, including aggregate
type, water content, and admixtures, should be considered.
What are the Differences between a GP and a GB Cement?
Table 10.1 of AS 3700 (which we have already seen twice) shows a difference in ratio of sand to
cements, depending on whether you use a GP or a GB Cement.
This section deals with the difference in performance, character and properties of Type GP and Type
GB Cements.
Cementitious Materials,Minerals and Additions
Portland Cement is the name of a process of manufacturing of cement. It’s invention dates back to it’s
invention by a man named John Aspen in England in 1824. There have been many technological
advances since it’s inception but the initial chemical reaction that was discovered in 1824 is still the
same. John Aspen used materials to create a cement powder that when mixed with water looked
similar to the colour of stone quarried in an area named Portland in England and so the name was
born Portland Cement.
!991 with an amendment to the standard the AS3700 The old Type A or as we now know it by General
Purpose Cement was allowed the addition of no more than 5% of Mineral additions . These additions
can be ground Limestone. Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash or Silica Fume.
Type GB or Builders Cements
Blended Cements are generally sold in the marketplace as “Builder’s Cements or Blends. AS3972
Classifies cements which have a greater percentage than 5% of Flyash, Granulated Iron Blast furnace
Slag or Silica Fume to be classified as Blended or Type GB Cements. Because Blended cements contain
large amounts of unprocessed cementitious materials they are cheaper to manufacture and are usually
sold at a cheaper price in the market-place.
Fly ash is a fine powder many times finer than a Portland cement particle. It is a bi product of electric
Power Stations powered by coal .Fly ash is mainly aluminosilicates with various other elements
. Fly ash will absorb water. Fly ash shall comply with Australian Standard AS 3582.1
Ground Blast Furnace Slag is a bi product of the steel manufacturing industry. Slag is very angular
In its particle shape. Slag is primarily a material containing silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium
produced simultaneously with iron in a blast surface. Slag will not absorb water. Ground Furnace Blast Slag
Shall comply with the Australian Standard AS 3582.2
Silica Fume is a bi product of silica alloy metal production and is very rarely if ever used in Brick and
Block Laying Mortars. Silica fume is much finer than Fly ash. Silica fume is primarily Silica. Silica fume shall
comply with the Australian Standard AS 3582.3
GB Cements, Builder’s cements or Blends have the characteristic of having slower initial setting times. This
Makes blended cements attractive for use with the brick layer as he will not have to worry about his mud
going hard on hot days and losing money through loss of wasted material. GB cements are usually sold
in the market-place at a cheaper price than General Purpose Cements.
Lime
Basic Mortar Facts
• Mortar consists of cement,lime and sand.
• Mortar acts as the bonding agent between the masonry units as well as accommodating
variations variations in their dimensions. The mortar must also have adequate workability
during laying,and adequate strength and durability in service.
7 GOOD REASONS FOR USING LIME
1.
Workability
- imparts plasticity to mortar
2.
Water Retention - stops early stiffening of mortar.
3.
Bond Strength
4.
Compressive Strength – Lime mortars gain strength in time.
5.
Autogenous Healing – “re-knitting” of hairline cracks- recarbonating to plug
openings.
6.
Weather Resistance - Tight bonding of lime mortar resists wearing from wind and
rain.
7.
AS3700 requires Lime in most of it’s prescriptive mix designs.
- lime mortar squeezes into irregularities in the brick face giving
a close continuous bond.
WARNING: POWDERED HYDRATED LIME IS VERY DANGEROUS KEEP AWAY FROM
SKIN, EYES AND LUNGS
Sand
AS3700 10.4.22 States that Sand shall be free from materials deleterious to the mortar and to
embedded items and be chosen to produce mortar that meets the requirements of the
Australian Standard AS3700
What the hell is a “ Deleterious Material?”
The “Deleterious Materials that the standard refers to is primarily Clay & Silt. AS3700 has no
recommendation on amount of clay and silt particles in sand. Amendments in the near future
may specify levels. The general industry opinion currently is that anything above 10% will
give you problems.
Sands used in Australia are usually from either of following sources. Depositional Sands or
Dune Sands. Depositional sands are generally found in the basins or valleys of mountainous
regions they are sand particles that have their edges rounded off as they are washed down
hill and mix with clay particles.
Dunes sands are sands that have accumulated in large piles due to the oceans currents or
have stockpiled in arid, desert like terrain. Dune sands also contain clays although generally
not as much as a depositional sand and the two clays are usually very different in physical
and chemical composition
All mortar sands need fine particles along with large particles. The washing of sands to
attain clean product also washes the fine particles out of the sand so it is necessary for
some quarries to keep a percentage of clay within their sands so as to also keep in the
fine sand particles. Clay Bricks are made of Clay, Concrete Blocks are made from 100%
washed sand, it stands to reason that when laying each different material replicated
sands should be used to make their mortar.
% passing
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
75um
150um
300um
600um
1.18mm
2.36mm
4.75mm
A typical sand grading envelope for mortar
(Information courtesy of the Clay Brick and Paver Institute)
A quick way to check your Sand for Clay Content on Site
Get a jar or a bottle (preferably with parallel sides) fill it to about three
quarters of the volume with the sand you are using. Then fill the rest of
the jar up with water. Screw the lid back on the jar tight and shake the
jar vigorously. Leave the jar to settle on a flat surface for about 45
minutes. This is known as a basic settlement test. The sand and Clay
will separate. The sand being the larger denser particle will settle to the
bottom. The clay being the lighter weight less denser particle will float
for a longer period and eventually settle in a band of clay on the top.
Measuring how much clay you have in relation to sand in the jar will
give you a basic indication of the percentage of clay in the sand. If you
want to accelerate the settlement of the sand you can add two
teaspoons of salt to the water ,this will help settle the clay particles
quicker. This is a guideline test only and can not be used as an
accurate science.
(Demonstrate coffee
jar shake test.)
(show prepared
samples of kiln dried
washed sand
compared to on site
bricklaying sand)
(Demonstrate water
level in kin dried
washed compared to
on site undried sand
for brick laying.)
Diagram – Sand Moisture Tester
20 cm
20
15
5 cm
10
5
0
S
28cm
18 cm
21.5 cm
W
11.5 cm
5. Water And Additives
Water To Cement Ratios
If you have volume mixing of lime and sand and cement figured out by now,welcome
to the water section. Water to Cement ratio is by weight!
We have already seen the requirements for water under the standard AS3700. The
criteria is that if you can drink the water you can use it to mix with cement. Yet
AS3700 although prescriptive on mix designs has no recommendation for water
volume or content. There is a good reason for that so many variances. For example if
this was a course on making good concrete we would be learning that in concrete
you never exceed a .5 water cement ratio. A stronger concrete is attained with a ratio
of .35. How this is worked out? One litre of water weighs 1 kilogram, therefore in
concrete for every 10 kgs of cement you add no more than 5 litres of water. This
would be a .5 water to cement ratio. For a .35 ratio you would add only 3.5 litres of
water to every 10 kgs of cement. When mixing mortar however it is not unusual to
double the water cement ratio. Being that for every 10 kgs of cement you could add
20 litres of water. So why is this so? In our section on bricks and blocks the brick
manufacturers have supplied data on initial rates of absorption or suction. Concrete
blocks and clay bricks can both absorb a lot of water depending on the materials
they were made with and the heat of the day. A dry block with a high porosity can
soak all the water out of a mortar and void the cement content in the mortar. It
should be stated that your water should be measured up until you have the correct
consistency of mud and then maintained with the same amounts providing the
weather conditions remain constant.
Reasons for variations in water to cement ratio
•On hot days water will evaporate from the mix
•Warm Bricks and Blocks soak up more water than cold
Water Releasers
Bond Strength (MPa)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
5%
10%
15%
Fireclay Dose (by Volume)
Typical effect on bond strength by using clay as a plasticiser
Air Entrainers
Bond Strength (MPa)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
None
Recommended by
Manufacturer
Air Entrainer Dose
Typical effect of overdosing entrainer.
Overdosed 40 Times
Fracture Surfaces of Mortars
Augmented with AEA;
(a)
control (no AEA),
(b)
Recommended AEA dosage,
(c)
10X overdosed and
(d)
50X AEA overdosed.
Secondary electron images, bar length = 100μm. A foamed structure as a result of the high levels of entrained air.
Inspection of the above figure revealed that the entrained air bubbles effectively become hollow ‘aggregate-like’ particles within the
cementitious fines. Therefore, the decrease in bond strength was due to the reduced capacity of the paste to form a continuous and
coherent bond layer along the mortar/brick interface. This is in turn is likely to be due to the reduced flow of the paste as a result of
the lower water/solids ratio and the consumption of the paste to form hollow ‘aggregate-like’ particles.
note
100
6. Basic Cement Chemistry
Basic Cement Chemistry
One of the first things we learn in chemistry in school is that some substances are either
acid or alkaline. We are trying to keep this course as untechnical as possible, so let us just
remember that Portland Cement is an alkali with an alkalinity level of around 12.5.
Cements in Australia
Cements manufactured in Australia use limestone as their primary source of calcium. In
other countries Limestone is also used yet some plants produce cement made from the
crushing of sea shells. Cements in Australia are produced by either of two processes, Wet
or Dry. We will not go into the details of the processes as Australian Standard AS 3792
guarantees their performance regardless of their process. It is important however to
summarise what actually goes into cement so we can have a basic understanding of the
chemistry of mortars.
Portland Cement Summarised (the “untechnical explanation)
Quarry Limestone rock, crush it burn it at high temperature in a kiln adding aluminium.
This produces a Dark grey rock called clinker. Clinker is then stored for a few months
before it is ground back into powder with the addition of Gypsum. It is gypsum that
gives cement it’s guarantee of setting time.
Average Percentage of Elements & Oxides in Portland
Cement
Lime (CaO)
60-67%
Silica (SiO2)
17-25%
Alumina (Al203)
3-8%
Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)
3-8%
Magnesia (MgO)
0.1- 5.5%
Alkalies (Na2O + K2O)
0.5- 1.3%
Titania (TiO2)
0.1 – 0.4%
Phosphorus(P2O5)
0.1 – 0.2%
Gypsum (expressed as SO3) 1-3%
When water is added to cement powder it enacts some chemical reactions which we will call….
Four really big chemical terms
Tricalcium Silicate
Dicalcium Silicate
Tricalcium Aluminate
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite
Tricalcium Silicate is Light in colour hardens quickly with evolution of
heat. Gives early strength.Is the greatest contributor to
initial set properties.
C3S
Dicalcium Silicate
Is light in colour. Hardens slowly. Gives late strength.
C2S
Tricalcium Aluminate is light in colour .Sets quickly with evolution of heat.
C3A
Enhances strength of silicates.
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite is Dark in colour with little cementing value.
C4AF
Now!Let us look at the 4
big words a different way
Tri calcium Silicate
Dicalcium Silicate
Tricalcium Aluminate
Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite
The Calcium Silicate Reaction
Calcium
When Lime and Silica are fused with heat a
Calcium Silicate reaction occurs. Cements often
give off a product called Free Lime. Free lime is
basically excess calcium that has not had silica
to fuse with. This is the chemistry that blended
cements are based on. The free lime fuses
together with the silicates of the slag or Flyash to
form a calcium silicate reaction,and form
additional cement crystals. Calcium Silicate
reactions can occur naturally in nature.
Silly Kate
We have already seen in our percentages of oxides in cement that an average of 6067% of Portland Cements are Lime(which is almost pure calcium) and that 17-25%
are Silica. This would indicate to even the most untechnical mind that good cement
chemistry depends on mainly the calcium silicate reaction. When cement and lime
are added to water heat is generated and an exothermic reaction occurs fusing
calcium and silicate together. Now this is where the alkali reaction comes in, cement
will only form a calcium silicate reaction if it is in water and the solution is alkali, the
easiest way to secure that your mortar mix is alkali is use more Portland (type GP)
cement or add hydrated or builders lime. On the next slide we will divide the
materials that we looked at by their calcium and silicate reaction. Keep in mind that
we mentioned the importance of Calcium Hydroxide crystals in Bond Strength as we
will also add this to the table.
Calcium
Silica & Silicates
Limestone(alkali)
Sand (neutral)
Hydrated Lime(alkali)
Clay (neutral)
Builders Lime (alkali)
Flyash (neutral)
Portland Cement (alkali)
Slag (neutral)
Silica Fume (neutral)
These materials produce
Calcium hydroxide when
mixed with water
These don’t
Demonstration of Calcium silicate reaction using lime and
clay. (1 part clay 1 part lime 1 part water)
Demonstration of Hydrated lime with sand
(1 part sand 1 part hydrated lime 1 part water)
Demonstration of slaked lime with sand(no clay)
(1 part slaked lime 1 part water 1 part sand)
Demonstration of slaked lime with sand & clay
(1 part slaked lime 1 part sand 1 part clay)
100
7. All About Bricks and Blocks
Specifications
BASALT BLEND BRICK
CALCIUM SILICATE
BRICK
STANDARD
COMMON
BASALT BLEND
BRICK
CALCIUM SILICATE
BRICK
Masonry
Masonry
Bricks
Masonry
Masonry
11.76BS
S3H76B
11.119B
S3H119B
230x110x76
230x110x76
230x110x76
230x110x119
230x110x119
DW2
DW2
DW2
DW2
DW2
Perforation (%)
25
15
<30
25
15
Ave unit weight (kg)
4.0
3.3
3.0
5.1
5.0
Approx number per m2
49.0
49.0
49.0
32.4
32.4
Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2)
231
197
182
200
190
Characteristic unconfined compressive strength of the unit (f'uc ) MPa
≥ 12
≥ 12
>22
≥ 12
≥ 12
>4.8
>4.8
>6.6
>5.0
>5.0
5.2
>7.0
DUPLICATES:-LOAD bearing
Technical Details
Work size (mm)
Dimensional category
Strengths of masonry (MPa)
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M3* mortar (GP)
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M4* mortar (EXP)
24 hour cold water absorption (%)
Bulk brick density (kg/m 3)
5.5
<9
2080
1716
1560
1694
Co-efficient of growth 'em ' (mm/m/15yrs)
na
na
<1.2
na
na
Salt attack resistance category
GP
GP
GP
GP
GP
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
na
na
Nil
na
na
Liability to effloresce
Lime pitting
1661
STC rating
- Unrendered
na
46
45
na
46
>48
49
48
>48
49
- Daub Fixed Plasterboard (both sides)
46
na
na
46
na
- Impact (rendered both sides)
No
No
No
No
No
- Impact (BIC** one side / render or P'bd other)
52
- Rendered (both sides)
52
Fire rating (FRL) minutes *
- Insulation unrendered
90
120
90
90
120
120
120
90
120
120
No per pack
500
504
400
350
304
Pack weight (kg)
2000
1663
1200
1785
1520
- Insulation rendered (13mm 1:1:6, cement:lime:sand)
Pack dimensions (mm)
1150x770x912
Specifications
CALCIUM
SILICATE BRICK
(Solo Wall)
PARTY WALL 119
Bricks
Masonry
Bricks
PW
140S119B
PWB
10.119B
230x140x76
230x150x76
230x140x119
230x150x119
390x100x119
DW2
STO <-- ?
DW2
DW2
DW1
Perforation (%)
<30
<25
<30
<30
21
Ave unit weight (kg)
4.0
4.7
6.2
6.0
8.0
Approx number per m2
49.0
49.0
32.4
32.5
19.4
Brickwork load/m2 (kg/m2)
265
265
256
230
180
Characteristic unconfined compressive strength of the unit (f'uc ) MPa
≥ 12
>22
≥ 12
>22
12
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M3* mortar (GP)
>4.8
>7.6
>5.0
>7.6
5.60
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M4* mortar (EXP)
5.2
>8.1
5.5
>8.1
1635
>2000
1618
3120
Co-efficient of growth 'em ' (mm/m/15yrs)
na
<0.8
na
<1.1
na
Salt attack resistance category
GP
GP
GP
GP
GP
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
na
Nil
na
Nil
na
- Unrendered
47
45
47
49
?
- Rendered (both sides)
53
51
53
57
>46
47
DUPLICATES:-LOAD bearing
CALCIUM SILICATE
BRICK (Solo Wall)
PARTY WALL 76
Masonry
140S76B
Concrete Brick
100mm
Technical Details
Work size (mm)
Dimensional category
Strengths of masonry (MPa)
24 hour cold water absorption (%)
Bulk brick density (kg/m 3)
Liability to effloresce
Lime pitting
<10
<9
1724
STC rating
- Daub Fixed Plasterboard (both sides)
- Impact (rendered both sides)
na
na
na
na
EBS Opinion
No
EBS Opinion
Yes (NAL Opinion)
- Impact (BIC** one side / render or P'bd other)
na
YES(>52)
Fire rating (FRL) minutes *
- Insulation unrendered
180
90
180
120
- Insulation rendered (13mm 1:1:6, cement:lime:sand)
180
90
180
180
90
No per pack
416
235
248
180
165
Pack weight (kg)
1664
1105
1538
1080
1320
Pack dimensions (mm)
1150x770x833
1150x750x952
90
Specifications
BASALT BLEND BRICK
CALCIUM SILICATE
BRICK
STANDARD
COMMON
BASALT BLEND
BRICK
CALCIUM SILICATE
BRICK
Masonry
Masonry
Bricks
Masonry
Masonry
11.76BS
S3H76B
11.119B
S3H119B
230x110x76
230x110x76
230x110x76
230x110x119
230x110x119
DW2
DW2
DW2
DW2
DW2
Perforation (%)
25
15
<30
25
15
Ave unit weight (kg)
4.0
3.3
3.0
5.1
5.0
Approx number per m 2
49.0
49.0
49.0
32.4
32.4
Brickwork load/m 2 (kg/m2)
231
197
182
200
190
Characteristic unconfined compressive strength of the unit (f'uc ) MPa
≥ 12
≥ 12
>22
≥ 12
≥ 12
>4.8
>4.8
>6.6
>5.0
>5.0
5.2
>7.0
DUPLICATES:- LOAD bearing
Technical Details
Work size (mm)
Dimensional category
Strengths of masonry (MPa)
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M3* mortar (GP)
- Characteristic compressive strength (f'm ) M4* mortar (EXP)
24 hour cold water absorption (%)
Bulk brick density (kg/m 3)
5.5
<9
2080
1716
1560
1694
Co-efficient of growth 'em ' (mm/m/15yrs)
na
na
<1.2
na
na
Salt attack resistance category
GP
GP
GP
GP
GP
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
Nil to slight
na
na
Nil
na
na
Liability to effloresce
Lime pitting
1661
STC rating
- Unrendered
na
46
45
na
46
>48
49
48
>48
49
- Daub Fixed Plasterboard (both sides)
46
na
na
46
na
- Impact (rendered both sides)
No
No
No
No
No
- Impact (BIC** one side / render or P'bd other)
52
- Rendered (both sides)
52
Fire rating (FRL) minutes *
- Insulation unrendered
90
120
90
90
120
120
120
90
120
120
No per pack
500
504
400
350
304
Pack weight (kg)
2000
1663
1200
1785
1520
- Insulation rendered (13mm 1:1:6, cement:lime:sand)
Pack dimensions (mm)
General Notes:
1150x770x912
* As per AS3700:1998
NB: Number per pallet may vary between plants
Notes: Calcium Silicate range
Notes: Concrete range
B - > 45% Basalt
9.162B - Basalt Blend (Fire
** Boral
Tested)
Impact Clip SYSTEM: Includes furring channels & insulation
Compressive
strength (f'uc)
MPa
'e'
factor
mm/m
Initial rate of
Absorption
French Provincial Champagne
>15
French Provincial St Tropez
>15
New Marseille
kg/m2 /min
Average
Weight
kg
Durability Class
Cold Water
Absorption %
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
New Monaco
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Toulouse
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Brick Name
PROVINCIAL
SOUTH PACIFIC
Vanuatu II
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Coral Sea II
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Tahiti II
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Jamison
>20
<1.0
0.7
3.2
EXP
5
HERITAGE
Hampton
>20
<1.0
0.7
3.2
GP
5
Amberflash
>20
<1.0
0.7
3.2
EXP
5
Woollahra
>20
<1.0
0.7
3.2
GP
5
Castlereagh
>20
<1.0
0.7
3.2
EXP
5
FEDERATION
Woolwich
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Blackheath
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
EXP
7
Lachlan
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
EXP
7
Lawson
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Cream Texture
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Red Texture
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
TEXTURES
NOUVELLE
Paris
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Chablis
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Lille
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Dijon
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
AUSTRALIANA
Tea tree
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Honeysuckle
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Red Wood
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
EXP
7
Rivergum
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
EXP
7
Salt Bush
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
EXP
7
Waratah
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.2
GP
7
Austral Face Bricks
Compressive
strength (f'uc)
MPa
'e'
factor
mm/m
Initial rate of
Absorption
Governor Wakehurst
>6
Governor King
>6
Governor Haigh
kg/m /min
Average
Weight
kg
Durability Class
Cold Water
Absorption %
<1.0
1.5
3.3
EXP
10
<1.0
1.5
3.3
EXP
10
>6
<1.0
1.5
3.3
EXP
10
Governor Dennison
>6
<1.0
2.0
3.3
EXP
10
Governor Duff
>6
<1.0
2.0
3.2
EXP
10
Governor Gipps
>6
<1.0
3.5
3.5
EXP
10
Governor Belmore
>6
<1.0
5.0
3.4
GP
10
Governor Darling
>6
<1.0
5.0
3.6
GP
10
Governor Foveaux
>6
<1.0
5.0
3.6
EXP
10
Governor Lindesay
>6
<1.0
1.5
3.4
GP
10
Classic Cream
>12
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
Classic Red
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
Classic Brown
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
Classic Grey
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
Classic Amber
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
Brick Name
2
GOVERNORS
CLASSICS
NEW CENTURY
NC Red
>15
<1.0
0.8
3.1
GP
7
NC Brown
>15
<1.0
0.8
3.1
GP
7
NC Cream
>15
<1.0
0.8
3.1
GP
7
NC Gold
>15
<1.0
0.8
3.1
GP
7
NC Grey
>15
<1.0
0.8
3.1
GP
7
MILLENIUM
Millenium Red
>15
<1.0
0.7
3.3
GP
7
Millenium Cream
>15
<1.0
0.7
3.3
GP
7
Millenium Brown
>15
<1.0
0.7
3.3
GP
7
Millenium Grey
>15
<1.0
0.7
3.3
GP
7
VOGUE
Rose Blush
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.0
GP
7
Moonlight Mist
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.0
GP
7
Lighthouse Mist
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.0
GP
7
Petersen
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
EXP
6
Marblewash
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.0
GP
7
OLD COLONIAL
OC Red
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
OC Buff
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
OC Amber Glow
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
OC Mahogany
>15
<1.0
1.0
3.1
GP
7
6
EASTWOOD
Dark Chocolate Mottle
>15
<0.5
4.0
3.8
EXP
Light Chocolate Mottle
>8
<1.0
7.0
3.8
GP
7
Red Mottle
>8
<1.0
7.0
3.8
GP
10
Light Red Mottle
>8
<1.5
5.0
3.8
GP
12
Austral Face Bricks
Brick Name
Compressive
strength (f'uc)
MPa
'e'
factor
mm/m
Initial rate of
Absorption
kg/m2 /min
Average
Weight
kg
Durability Class
Cold Water
Absorption %
BOWRAL
Bowral Blue
>15
<0.5
3.0
3.8
EXP
6
Bowral Brown
>10
<0.5
6.0
3.6
EXP
8
Capitol Red
>10
<0.5
6.0
3.6
EXP
8
Charolais Cream
>10
<0.5
6.0
3.6
EXP
8
Gertrudis Brown
>6
<0.5
6.0
3.8
EXP
8
Guernsey Tan
>10
<1.0
6.0
3.6
GP
8
Limousin Gold
>10
<0.5
6.0
3.6
GP
8
Murray Grey
>10
<1.0
6.0
3.6
EXP
8
St Pauls Cream
>10
<0.5
6.0
3.6
EXP
8
Simmental Silver
>6
<1.0
6.0
3.6
GP
8
Shorthorn Mix
>6
<1.0
6.0
3.8
GP
9
RIVERVIEW
Karana
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
10
Elanora
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
10
Pinjarra
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
10
Warrego
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
10
Kunari
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
10
Merindah
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
EXP
10
CANYONSTONE
Quartz
>15
<1.2
1.2
5.5
EXP
7
White Opal
>15
<1.2
1.2
5.5
EXP
7
Alabaster
>15
<1.2
1.2
5.5
EXP
7
Tapestry
>15
<1.2
1.2
2.7
EXP
6
Monticello
>10
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
9
Blanco
>10
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
9
Monterey
>10
<1.2
1.2
2.7
GP
9
SANTA FE
Quantities of Cement, Lime and Sand per 1000 Bricks
Mortar Composition (C:L:S)
By Volume
No of 40 kg bags of Cement
No of 25kg
bags of Lime
AS 3700
Code
GP Portland
Cement
GB Blended
Cement
GP Portland
Cement
GB Blended
Cement
M4
1:0:4
1:0:3
6.5
8
0
M4
1:½:4½
1:½:3½
5.3
6.5
1.6
M3
1:1:6
1:1:5
4
4.5
2.4
M3
1:0:5
1:0:4
4
5
0
M2
1:2:9
1:2:7
2.7
3.2
3.2
M2
1:3:12
1:3:10
2
2.4
3.6
M1
0:1:3
0:1:3
-
-
4.5
Cubic Metres
of Sand
Tonnes of
damp Sand
0.64
1.2
Not e: The quantities in this table assume partial filling of brick cores and typical site wastage.
Golden Rules For Acid Cleaning
Wet the wall thoroughly before any cleaning agent is applied and keep wall wet
ahead at cleaning.
Select a cleaning agent appropriate to the stain to be removed and test it on a small
inconspicuous area.
Never use hydrochloric acid stronger then 1:10 and preferably weaker.
Scrub the bricks and not the joints. Vigorous scrubbing is better than more acid.
Wash down with clean water as the work proceeds.
For a first class job mop off surplus water with a clean sponge.
(Information courtesy of the Clay Brick and Paver Institute)
Tips For Storing Bricks On Site.
1.
Avoid placing brick stacks directly on the ground where they can absorb dirty or saline
ground water. Put plastic or timber under the brick stacks.
2.
Don’t stack bricks in water puddles on concrete slabs. Concrete, especially fresh concrete,
is saline and the bricks will absorb this saline moisture which will contribute to early age
efflorescence of the bricks or brickwork.
3.
Keep bricks dry. If they are delivered in plastic wrap, leave it on until ready to lay.
Otherwise, cover the bricks to keep them dry.
4.
In warm, sunny conditions it is advisable to shade the bricks so they are not too hot when
laid. Hot bricks cause mortar to dry out too quickly.
5.
Never soak bricks before laying. Some dated specifications require bricks to be soaked This is wrong. Laying soaked bricks causes the water:cement ratio of mortar to rise which results
in weak mortar and dirty work from mortar dribbles. Some bricks that have a high rate of
Absorption may need to be lightly sprayed with a hose in the hour before laying, to moisten the
Brick surface. This reduces water suction allowing for slower drying and stronger mortar.
6.
Plan where bricks are to be placed on delivery. Make allowance to place the pallets as close as
possible to where the bricks are to be laid. Try to avoid too much handling of bricks on site this increases efficiency and reduces the risk of damage to the bricks before being laid.
(Information courtesy of the Clay Brick and Paver Institute)
8. All about Brick Ties
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
AS 2701-2001 “Methods of sampling and testing mortar for masonry construction” - Standards Australia.
AS 3700-1998 “Masonry structures” - Standards Australia.
AS 1478.1-2000 “Chemical admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout” - Standards Australia.
AS 3872-1997 “Portland and blended cements” - Standards Australia.
”Structural Research, Consulting and Testing” - The University of Newcastle Research Associates (TUNRA)
Limited.
Abbey Australia Pty Limited
“Clay Brick & Paver Technical Reference Manual” - Clay Brick & Paver Institute.
“Detailing of Clay Masonry Walls” - Clay Brick & Paver Institute.
“Guide to Concrete Construction” - Cement and Concrete Association of Australia.
“Design of Concrete Masonry Buildings – MA40” - Concrete Masonry Association of Australia.
“Design of Concrete Masonry Buildings – MA43” - Concrete Masonry Association of Australia.
“Detailing and Construction of Concrete Masonry Buildings” - Concrete Masonry Association of Australia.
“The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete” Third Edition - Frederick M Lea.
“Masonry Bond Strength Research Report” July 2000. S. J Lawrence - SPL Consulting Pty Ltd, A.W Page The University Of Newcastle, W Samarasinghe - CSIRO Division of Building, Construction and Engineering,
and H Sugo, Research Student The University of Newcastle.
Acknowledgements
My sincere thanks and appreciation to:
•Jock Cameron – MCA Executive Secretary
•Gary Roberts – MCA President
•Terry Hough – Walsos
•Simon Knott – Yorkshire Bricklaying
•Ray Favetti – Peter Favetti & Sons
•John Purbello – Quick Brick
•Tim Murphy – Fugen
•Martin Drienne –Austral Bricks
•Cathy Ingliss – Austral bricks
•Mike Kirby-Jones – Boral
•Ken Smith – Boral
•Alan Pearson – Concrete Masonry Association
•Bob Rossington – Clay Brick & Paver Institute
•Phil O'Brien – Adjuvate ( Excellent Library)
•Eric Lumes – Cement & Concrete Association
•Professor A. W Page – The University of Newcastle
•Heber. Sugo – The University of Newcastle
•John Gilmore – Australian Standards
•Paul Keane – David Mitchell Lime
•Graham Owen – Melcann Limited
•Bill Belsey – Abey Ties
•Alan Packwood – Abey Ties
•John Crowe – CSR PGH
• Len Ryan -CSR PGH
•Dave Nugent – Rocla
•Mark Mearing – Rocla
•Bruce Shying – BITS
Brought to you buy:
John Patrick White
The Mortar Batching Course For Brick & Block Laying - 2001
Thank you for attending this course, we hope you found the information useful, please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any
further questions.
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