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World War II
1 period – 1.9.1939 – 22.6.1941
(invasion of Poland, the Phoney war, Battle of France, Battle of
Britain…)
2 period – 22.6.1941 – 2.2.1943
(Operation Barbarossa, attack on Pearl Harbor,
Battle of Midway, Battle of Stalingrad…)
3 perion – 2.2.1943 – 8.5.1945 (2.9.1945 – in Pacific)
(Battle of Normandy, Yalta Conference, Battle of Berlín, Postdam
Conference, bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, surrender of
Japan…)
1
Combatants
Major Allied powers:
United Kingdom
France
Soviet Union
United States
Republic of China
and others
Major Axis powers:
Germany
Italy
Japan
and others
Commanders
Winston Churchill
Joseph Stalin
Franklin Roosevelt
Chiang Kai-Shek
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Hideki Tojo
2
1939 – Invasion of Poland

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start of World War II in Europe
began on September 1, 1939, one
week after the signing of the secret
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and
ended on October 6, 1939, with
Germany and the Soviet Union
occupying whole Poland
codenamed Fall Weiss ("Case
White") by the German General
Staff
Polish infantry during the Invasion of Poland,
September 1939.
3
4
The Phoney War (sitting war)
few military operations in
Continental Europe, in the
months following the German
invasion of Poland
Ex. Winter War, German
invasion of Denmark and
Norway, Fall of British
government

British Ministry of Home Security Poster of
a type that was common during the "Phony
War"
5
Battle of France






known as the Fall of France
the German invasion of France
(10 May 1940)
Paris was occupied and the French
government fled to Bordeaux
France capitulated on 25 June
France was divided into a German
occupation zone in the north and west,
a small Italian occupation zone in the
southeast and a collaborationist
government in the south, Vichy, France Germans parading in the deserted
Camps-Élysées avenue, Paris, June 1940.
France remained under German
occupation till 1944
6
Battle of Britain
July – December 1940
 started with attempt by the
German Luftwaffe (in the
german Blitzkrieg) to gain air
superiority over the Royal Air
Force (RAF), before a planned
sea and airborne invasion of
Britain (Operation Sealion)
 the Germans wanted to destroy
aircraft production and ground
infrastructure, as well as
terrorising the British people

Heinken He 111 over London, 7 September 1940
7
Winston Churchill


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
30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965
best known as Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom during the WWII
an orator, strategist, and politician
won the 1953 Nobel Prize in Literature
for his many books on English and world
history
he was fond of alcohol - in India and
South Africa, he got in the habit of adding
small amounts of whisky to the water he
drank in order to prevent disease
Portrait of Winston Churchill on
Churchill's favorite whisky was Johnnie cover of Life magazine.
Walker Red
8
Winston Churchil´s famous quotations
Lady Astor, "You are drunk." Churchill, "I may be drunk, miss, but
in the morning I will be sober and you will still be ugly."
 Lady Astor, "If I were your wife, I'd put poison in your coffee."
Churchill, "Nancy, if I were your husband, I would drink it."
 „I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat“
- a famous speech made to the House of Commons of the British
Parliament on 13 May 1940
- it was his first speech to the House after taking over as Prime
Minister of Britain in the first year of World War II

9
Operation Barbarossa



lasted from June 1941 to
December 1941
rapid conquest of the European
part of the Soviet Union, west of a
line connecting the cities of
Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan, often
referred to as the AA line
the failure of Operation Barbarossa
arguably resulted in the eventual
defeat of Nazi Germany, and was a
turning point for the fortunes of
Adolf Hitle's Third Reich
10
Attack on Pearl Harbor
a surprise aerial attack of
Japan on USA port Pearl
Harbor, Hawaii
 the attack severely
damaged 9 warships,
destroyed 188 aircrafts,
killed 2,403 Americans:
2,335 servicemen
68 civilians

Satellite image of Pearl Harbor.
11
Battle of Midway
naval battle in the Pacific
 June 4 - June 7, 1942
 six months after the Empire of
Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor
that had led to a state of war
between the USA and Japan
 the battle was a crushing defeat
for the Japanese and is widely
regarded as a very important naval
battle of World War II

A picture of Midway Atoll, taken several
months before the battle.
12
Battle of Stalingrad ( now Volgograd )
August 1942 – February 1943
 the most important turning point of
World War II
 considered the bloodiest battle in
human history
 the German Sixth Army and other
Axis forces were destroyed
 short of food and clothing, during the
latter part of the siege, many
German soldiers literally starved or
froze to death
 total casualties for both sides were
over two million

Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad,
13
Battle of Normandy
the Normandy invasion,
codenamed Operation
Overlord is the largest
seaborne invasion in history,
involving almost three million
troops crossing the English
Channel from England to
Normandy in then Germanoccupied France
 August 25 Paris was liberated

American troops landed at Omaha Beach on D-Day,
6 June 1944.
14
Yalta Conference
February 1945
 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin made
arrangements for post-war Europe
Resolutions:
 to form the United Nations;
 Poland would have free elections;
 the borders of Poland were to be drastically
moved westwards, at the expense of
Germany;
 Soviet nationals were to be repatriated;
 The Soviet Union was to attack Japan within
three months of Germany's surrender.

Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and
Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945.
15
Battle of Berlin and surrender of
German
April 1945
 the final battle of the
Eastern front
 Soviet troops captured
Berlin
 May 8, 1945 German forces
officially surrendered
Red Army soldiers raising the Flag of the Soviet

Union over the Reichstag building during the Battle of
Berlin, April 30th, 1945.
16
Potsdam Conferention
the last Allied conference was
held at the suburb of Potsdam,
outside Berlin from July 17 to
August 2, 1945
 during the Potsdam
Conference, agreements were
reached among the Allies on
policies for occupied Germany
 an ultimatum was issued
calling for the unconditional
surrender of Japan

Clement Attlee, Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin
at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945
17
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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president Harry Truman decided to
use the new atomic super-weapon to
bring the war to a faster end
on August 6, 1945, a B-29
Superfortress named the Enola Gay
dropped a nuclear weapon dubbed
Little Boy on Hiroshima, destroying
the city
on August 9, a B-29 named Bockscar
dropped the second atomic bomb,
dubbed Fat Man, on the port city of
Nagasaki
The mushroom cloud resulting from the
nuclear weapon known as Fat Man rises 18
km over Nagasaki from the nuclear explosion
hypocenter.
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Surrender of Japan
September 2, 1945
 the Japanese formally
surrendered aboard the
Battleship Missouri in Tokyo
Harbor
 official end of World War II

The Japanese surrender delegation on board USS
Missouri
20
The United Kingdom during WW II
 The United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany
in 1939, after the German invasion of Poland.
 Hostilities with Japan began in 1941, after it attacked
British colonies in Asia.
 The Axis powers were defeated by the Allies,
including the UK, in 1945.
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Casualties of war
63 million people, or 3% of the
world population, died in the
war
 about 24 million soldiers and
38 million civilians
 12 million lives lost in the
Holocaust
 80% were on the Allied side
and 20% on the Axis side

22
Percentage of
military and civilian
deaths by alliance
during World War II.
23
The Holocaust
the genocide of minority groups of Europe and North Africa by Nazi
Germany and its collaborators
 early elements of the Holocaust include the Kristallnacht pogrom of 8
and 9 November 1938 and the T-4 Euthanasia Program, leading to the
later use of killing squads and extermination camps in a massive and
centrally organized effort to exterminate every possible member of the
populations targeted by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis
 the Jews of Europe were the most numerous of the victims of the
Holocaust in what the Nazis called the "Final Solution of the Jewish
Question" or "the cleaning„
 it is commonly stated that approximately six million Jews were
murdered in the Holocaust

24
A child dying in the streets of the crowded
Warsaw Ghetto, where hunger and disease
were extremely prevalent.
The Nazi concentration camp in Nordhausen.
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Auschwitz concentration camp
the largest of the Nazi German
extermination camps, along
with a number of
concentration camps,
comprising three main camps
and 40 to 50 sub-camps
 the exact number of people
killed in the camps is not
known, but most modern
estimates are around 1.1-1.6
million

Entrance to Auschwitz I, 1941. The motto
over the gate, "Arbeit macht frei," translates
as: "Work makes one free."
27
The three main camps were:
Auschwitz I
- the original concentration camp which served as the
administrative center for the whole complex, and was
the site of the deaths of roughly 70,000 people, mostly
Poles and Soviet prisoners of war
 Auschwitz II (Birkenau)
- an extermination camp, where at least 1.1 million Jewish
people, 75,000 Polish people, and some 19,000 Roma
(gypsies) were killed
 Auschwitz III (Monowitz)
- served as a labor camp for the Buna-Werke factory of the
IG Farben concern
28

Recapitulation
 WWII lasted 2,194 days (1.9.1939-2.9.1945)
 70 states participated in war, 30 of them actively took part
in war operations.
 On the territories of 40 states were implemented military
operations.
 Only 6 states remained neutral.
 110 million people were called up to the military services.
 Direct war expenses were roughly 1 billion US $.
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Special operation executive (SOE)
 originated in 1940
 was concerned with evoking of resistance movement
 worked in many countries (Poland, Egypt, India,
Jugoslavia…)
 commander of SOE was canadian William
Stephenson, close friend of Winston Churchill
 unit was dismissed immediately after WWII
Espionage aids:
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Toothpaste with secret message
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Exploding rat
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Plastic trunk
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Cork with hidden message
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Technology of changing
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Key with message
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Thank you for your
attention!!! 
Oksana Olšová
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