ADAS - United Oilseeds

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January 2012
Oilseed rape in the rotation
Faye Ritchie, ADAS Rosemaund
What drives rotations?
• Economics – best margins
• Soil type (tradition) – what crops can be grown well (and sold)
• Pest and disease control – especially soil-borne organisms
• Weed control
•
•
•
•
Politics – set-aside requirements etc
Biodiversity
Fertility building – especially organic systems
Other problems – weather, late harvest, crop failure
Rotational issues
• WOSR yields – rotation
– rooting
• Soil-borne disease threats – and
interventions
- principles
- examples
• Other disease issues
• Conclusions
Impact of previous cropping on winter oilseed rape
yields
HGCA project 2922 – led by Ron Stobart, NIAB-TAG
• Trial location; NIAB-TAG Morley farm, Norfolk
• four replicate trial drilled on large plots
• variety Winner (used for the entire trial series)
• General agronomy
• prophylactic inputs consistent with local best practice
• Trial establishment (ideal)
• OSR cv Winner, typically drilled in early September
• 1st wheat cv Brompton, typically drilled in the second half of September
• 2nd (and later) wheat cv Brompton, typically drilled in mid October
Project treatment listing
Rotation
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Description
1
WOSR
WW
WW
WW
WW
WW
WW
WOSR
6 year gap
2
WW
WOSR
WW
WW
WOSR
WW
WW
WOSR
2 year gap
3
WW
WW
WOSR
WW
WW
WW
WW
WOSR
4 year gap
4
WW
WW
WW
WOSR
WW
WW
WW
WOSR
3 year gap
5
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
WOSR
continuous
WOSR
6
WOSR
WW
WOSR
WW
WOSR
WW
WOSR
WW
alternate WOSR
7
WOSR
WW
WW
WOSR
WW
WW
WOSR
WW
2 year gap
8
WW
WOSR
WW
WOSR
WW
WOSR
WW
WOSR
alternate WOSR
OSR Rotational position and yield (t/ha)
(Mean of 2006 – 2011 data)
4.50
4.00
3.50
Yield (t/ha)
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
Decline in OSR yield and rotational frequency
(Mean of 2006 – 2011 data)
120.00
R² = 0.99
% yield recovery
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
% inclusion of oilseed rape
Yield (t/ha)
WW Rotational position and yield (t/ha)
(Mean of 2006 – 2011 data)
12.00
11.00
10.00
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
Yields and outputs
(average data)
Description
OSR
£300/t
OSR
OSR
OSR
£350/t £400/t £400/t
WW
125/t
WW
150/t
WW
150/t
WW
200/t
OSR1 in 3
(1 WW; 10.10 t/ha, 2 WW 8.96 t/ha, OSR; 3.36 t/ha)
1070
1274
1323
1663
Alternate WW / OSR
(WW; 10.08 t/ha, OSR; 2.81t/ha)
1052
1248
1318
1570
st
nd
NB Data for longer rotations not
provided by this project
Key messages
• Results clearly highlight rotational impacts on crop
performance
• yield penalties with associated financial implications from close rotations
• Results to date demonstrate
•
•
•
•
•
reduced early vigour
volunteers issues (crop competition or early season disease)
other disease problems (eg stem canker)
potential reduction in (cumulative) flowering period
evidence that closer rotations are impacting on components for yield and
yield drivers (seed development and rooting)
• Potential pathogens e.g.Olpidium brassicae and Pyrenochaeta sp. are being
investigated
• TSB funded research is starting to examine management options
Rooting of OSR - Effects of June rainfall
on yield at Boxworth
Where rooting is limited, yield is likely to be linked
to rainfall
Y ie ld t/h a
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
0
50
100
June R a infa ll (m m )
150
Rooting at depth improved particularly by
metconazole PGR in spring and correlated
with yield
ADAS Boxworth 2005
4.20
Y ield @ 91% DM
4.00
3.80
3.60
3.40
R
2
= 0.54
3.20
0.70
0.80
0.90
M e a n ro o t le n g th d e n sity cm ro o t/cm
(40-100cm d e p th )
1.00
3
so il
Metconazole effects on rooting
• Rooting data from 6 field trials
• Applications from pre-green bud (GS3,1) to late green bud
(GS3,6)
• Spring applications increased root length density from 0.48 to
0.60 cm/cm3 (40-100cm depth)
• Estimated additional water uptake of 6-9 mm
• Estimated additional yield in dry year of 0.22 – 0.34 t/ha
Risk of drought affecting yield
60
Untreated
• Rainfall for 1986-2008
metconazole
% of seasons with drought
50
• 5 regions
• 3 soil types
40
• On heavy & medium soils
the risk of drought was 1 yr in
2 to 1 yr in 3
30
20
• With metconazole the risk of
drought was 1 yr in 5
10
0
East
Midlands
North
South
West
Soil-borne diseases and rotation
• Pathogen increases in a susceptible
crop and then declines under nonsusceptible crops.
120
% survival
100
80
Where is
threshold?
60
40
20
0
0
2
4
8
Time (years)
16
32
• Use extended rotations so that
pathogen population declines to
below threshold for economic
damage.
• Many soil-borne pathogens are
capable of long-term survival –
interventions are required as long
crop rotations may be impractical
(>10 years)
Changes in Verticillium populations in relation to
potato crop in 2003. No decrease in 6yr rotation
March 2003 14.8 cfu/g January 2009 12.5 cfu/g
Number of colony forming units
of V. dahliae/g soil
300
Disc 300+400
Telone + control
Disc 300+500
250
Disc 300+control
Dis 400+Telone
200
150
100
50
0
Apr-01
Sep-02
Potato Council Project R/328
Jan-04
May-05
Oct-06
Feb-08
Jul-09
Soil-borne oilseed rape diseases – severe
clubroot
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
20
03
20
04
20
05
20
06
20
07
20
08
20
09
20
10
20
11
% plants affected
Sclerotinia surveys WOSR England 19862011
7
CropMonitor data
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Products stretched in 2010 by late flowering
infection (early June) - Herefordshire
Untreated
half
full
50
% plants affected
40
30
20
10
0
Amistar Compass
Filan
Galileo
Proline
Prosaro
Topsin
Responses c. 1 t/ha from all products,
Herefordshire 2010
Untreated
half
full
6
Yield (t/ha)
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
Amistar Compass
Filan
Galileo
Proline
Prosaro
Topsin
SkleroPro Infection model
Criteria:
• Minimum requirements 7ºC and 80% RH for
23hr
Use to identify infection events in England
Koch et al., 2006
Fungicide persistence 3 weeks – needed 2
sprays in 2010
35
30
Sklero Pro infection events
Rainfall (mm)
25
20
15
AFD
10
5
0
01-Apr
08-Apr
15-Apr
22-Apr
29-Apr
06-May
13-May
20-May
27-May
03-Jun
10-Jun
Sclerotinia and rotations
• Higher risk where OSR grown in
short rotations or in rotations
with other susceptible crops Peas, potatoes, carrots and
other veg crops
• Sclerotia are long-lived if buried
deeply.
• Fungicides very effective (for a
soil-borne disease)
Verticillium wilt (V. longisporum) symptoms –
can we manage this disease threat?
Verticillium wilt
• First confirmed in UK in 2007
• Pathogen is Verticillium longisporum –
specific for crucifers (mainly brassicas) – first
described 1997
• Important in other parts of Europe with up to
50% yield loss
Disease cycle of
OSR verticillium
wilt
Plant debris or soil from
nearby infested fields
How much inoculum
are you producing?
0
Excalibur
Castille
DK Secure
DK ExMen
Es Astrid
Kalif
PR45D06
NK Bravour
PR45D05
Flash
Excel
PR46W21
PR45D03
Sesame
Hammer
DK Cabernet
Dimension
Krypton
Cuillin
Palace
Compass
Alienor
Oracle
Catana
% plants affected
Use resistance in varieties
Verticillium wilt at Bourne, Lincs 2010
30
25
LSD 10.2
20
15
10
5
Improving verticillium management – 2012 actions
• Monitor crops pre-harvest –
how much verticillium is
present?
• Found in all regions - more in
south and east
• Consider variety choice
• Be prepared to extend
rotations to at least 1 in 4
Rotations – spatial implications
• If crops are grown in short rotations, new crops will be close to
the previous year’s stubble and subject to spore transfer from
crop residues and volunteers.
• Disease gradients can be steep for some diseases (eg Phoma
leaf spot).
Light leaf spot – high risk for 2012
Light leaf spot in spring
has been increasing for the last 6 years
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
% crops
% plants
Regional light leaf spot risk
2010/2011
2011/2012
Increased
risk
Similar risk
Source: http://www3.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/leafspot/forecast/Default.htm
Large yield benefits from varieties with
good light leaf spot resistance
5.5
Untreated
Proline aut + sp
Proline spring
Yield (t/ha)
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
Castille
Castille 4.19 Cuillin 4.84 LSD =0.2
Cuillin
(KWS data 2010 N Yorks)
HGCA Light leaf spot control not easy - 2011
HGCA Fungicide Performance: Light leaf spot control 6 weeks after T2,
High Mowthorpe, 12 May 2011
12
LSD = 0.47
% leaf area afected
10
8
0
0.5
1
6
4
2
0
Prosaro
Proline
Sanction
Poraz
HGCA Light leaf spot fungicides and yield, N Yorks 2011
HGCA Light leaf spot fungicides and yield, N Yorks 2011
5.4
Treated yield 4.97 v untreated 4.39 P<0.001
5.2
Yield (t/ha)
5.0
4.8
0
0.5
1
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
Prosaro
Proline
Sanction
Poraz
Implications for light leaf spot control
• High risk in 2012
• Better yield performance where second treatments applied in February
• Control difficult – need to use more resistant varieties.
• Product and dose differences were identified - prothioconazole gave best
economic performance in first HGCA project;
tebuconazole and flusilazole still performing well
• Concerns about azole resistance
• Highly resistant varieties – Palace, Cuillin, Cracker, Catana
Conclusions
• Rotations are driven by economics
• Disease problems can emerge on short rotations but solutions
are available to manage many of them.
• New diagnostic tools should help quantify problems in future and
guide management decisions.
Thank you
Visit www.hgca.com/diseasecontrol for more information
Oilseed Rape
Update on new RL varieties and disease
management
Paul Gosling
Research & KT Manager (Agronomy)
39
Recommended list new additions for
2012
40
Oilseed rape
Variety
Type
Region
Breeder
Marko*
S RH
-
DSV
DK Camelot
W Open pollinated
E/W
DEKALB
DK Expower
Thorin
Palace
Artoga
Cracker
W
W
W
W
W
E/W
E/W
UK
North
Sp UK
DEKALB
LSPB
LSPB
Limagrain
LSPB
RH
RH semi dwarf
RH
RH
RH
* The spring OSR list is descriptive
41
Spring varieties
New
Marko
Delight
Tamarin
RH
RH
Conv
Gross output
[109]
101
102
Oil content
[44.5]
43.9
43.4
Lodging
[8]
8
8
Shortness of stem
[4]
6
6
Earliness of maturity
[3]
7
6
Yield
42
Winter varieties
43
Seasonal variation in oilseed rape
E/W yields (controls & new)
Average yield gain worth £140/ha based OSR @ £350/tonne
44
Restored hybrid varieties
New
DK Expower
PR46W21
E/W gross output
105
109
Lodging
[7]
8
Stem stiffness
7
9
Shortness of stem
6
6
Earliness of maturity
6
5
Phoma stem canker
[9]
5
6
4
Light leaf spot
Resistance
DK Expower contains the RLM7 resistance gene giving good resistance to Phoma
45
Conventional varieties
New
DK Camelot
106
DK Cabernet
108
[7]
8
Stem stiffness
7
9
Shortness of stem
8
7
Earliness of maturity
6
4
Phoma stem canker
6
6
[5]
5
E/W gross output
Lodging
Light leaf spot
Agronomy
DK Camelot is an earlier maturing variety
46
Semi-dwarf RH - East/West
New
Thorin
DK Sequoia
E/W gross output
104
101
Lodging
[8]
8
Stem stiffness
9
9
Shortness of stem
9
8
Earliness of maturity
5
6
[5]
6
6
5
Stem canker
Light leaf spot
Yield
Agronomy
Thorin is a high yielding semi dwarf variety with short stiff stems
Clubroot resistant RH
New
Cracker
Mendel
E/W gross output
97
94
Lodging
8
[8]
Stem stiffness
8
9
Shortness of stem
6
6
Earliness of maturity
6
6
Stem canker
4
5
Light leaf spot
9
5
Yield
Resistance
Cracker provides growers with a combination of light leaf
spot resistance and clubroot resistance
48
New information on disease
management
49
Clubroot
RD-2007-3373
Management of clubroot
(Plasmodiophora brassicae)
in winter oilseed rape
Diseased
Healthy
RD-2008-3525
Brassicas: Further
Development of “in field”
tests for resting spores of
clubroot and the development
of clubroot control based on
detection
50
Clubroot distribution
RD-2007-3373
50% of Scottish samples
54% of English samples
51
Effect on yield
Yield t/[email protected] 91% moisture content
7
y = -0.0294x + 3.8457
R² = 0.2225
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
20
40
60
% Clubroot index
80
100
52
Clubroot persistence
Modelled from Swedish data
53
Field trial results - RD-2007-3373
Factor / Site
Clubroot
epidemic
Autumn
conditions
Aberdeen
2007/2008
Aberdeen
2008/ 2009
Warwickshire
2009/2010
Herefordshire
2008/ 2009
Aberdeen
2009/2010
Shropshire
2007/2008
Very low all
season
Low all season
Low in autumn
and medium in
spring
Low in autumn
and medium in
spring
Moderate in
autumn and
severe in
summer
Very severe
from early on
Cool and drier Cool and very
than average wet, early frosts
Dry at sowing
Early winter
Wet
Wet, cool
Wet, warmer
Soil treatment
effect
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Variety effect
No
No
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
6.8
1857
6.6
2407
6.5
1720
6.1
999
6.6
2127
6.5
1720
22.6
7.1
11.3
83
24.6
35
pH pre trial
Calcium pre trial
(mg/l)
Clubroot severity
pre trial
(bioassay)
54
Project conclusions
• Clubroot can cause significant yield loses in OSR even
crop failure.
• Neither varietal resistance or soil amendments offer
complete and reliable control.
• The risks of clubroot increase when brassicas are
grown in short rotations (less than 1 in 5?)
• Preventative action with lime will be beneficial in
managing this disease where pressure is low.
• Varietal resistance is likely to be very successful
initially but will be eroded in short rotations.
55
Topic sheet
56
Oilseed Rape 2012 and beyond
• New RL varieties showing increased yield and
improved agronomic characteristics
• Watch for signs of clubroot - consider management
options
Thank you
58
Oilseed Rape
Update on new RL varieties and disease
management
Paul Gosling
Research & KT Manager (Agronomy)
59
Recommended list new additions for
2012
60
Oilseed rape
Variety
Type
Region
Breeder
Marko*
S RH
-
DSV
DK Camelot
W Open pollinated
E/W
DEKALB
DK Expower
Thorin
Palace
Artoga
Cracker
W
W
W
W
W
E/W
E/W
UK
North
Sp UK
DEKALB
LSPB
LSPB
Limagrain
LSPB
RH
RH semi dwarf
RH
RH
RH
* The spring OSR list is descriptive
61
Spring varieties
New
Marko
Delight
Tamarin
RH
RH
Conv
Gross output
[109]
101
102
Oil content
[44.5]
43.9
43.4
Lodging
[8]
8
8
Shortness of stem
[4]
6
6
Earliness of maturity
[3]
7
6
Yield
62
Winter varieties
63
Seasonal variation in oilseed rape
E/W yields (controls & new)
Average yield gain worth £140/ha based OSR @ £350/tonne
64
Restored hybrid varieties
New
DK Expower
PR46W21
E/W gross output
105
109
Lodging
[7]
8
Stem stiffness
7
9
Shortness of stem
6
6
Earliness of maturity
6
5
Phoma stem canker
[9]
5
6
4
Light leaf spot
Resistance
DK Expower contains the RLM7 resistance gene giving good resistance to Phoma
65
Conventional varieties
New
DK Camelot
106
DK Cabernet
108
[7]
8
Stem stiffness
7
9
Shortness of stem
8
7
Earliness of maturity
6
4
Phoma stem canker
6
6
[5]
5
E/W gross output
Lodging
Light leaf spot
Agronomy
DK Camelot is an earlier maturing variety
66
Semi-dwarf RH - East/West
New
Thorin
DK Sequoia
E/W gross output
104
101
Lodging
[8]
8
Stem stiffness
9
9
Shortness of stem
9
8
Earliness of maturity
5
6
[5]
6
6
5
Stem canker
Light leaf spot
Yield
Agronomy
Thorin is a high yielding semi dwarf variety with short stiff stems
Clubroot resistant RH
New
Cracker
Mendel
E/W gross output
97
94
Lodging
8
[8]
Stem stiffness
8
9
Shortness of stem
6
6
Earliness of maturity
6
6
Stem canker
4
5
Light leaf spot
9
5
Yield
Resistance
Cracker provides growers with a combination of light leaf
spot resistance and clubroot resistance
68
New information on disease
management
69
Clubroot
RD-2007-3373
Management of clubroot
(Plasmodiophora brassicae)
in winter oilseed rape
Diseased
Healthy
RD-2008-3525
Brassicas: Further
Development of “in field”
tests for resting spores of
clubroot and the development
of clubroot control based on
detection
70
Clubroot distribution
RD-2007-3373
50% of Scottish samples
54% of English samples
71
Effect on yield
Yield t/[email protected] 91% moisture content
7
y = -0.0294x + 3.8457
R² = 0.2225
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
20
40
60
% Clubroot index
80
100
72
Clubroot persistence
Modelled from Swedish data
73
Field trial results - RD-2007-3373
Factor / Site
Clubroot
epidemic
Autumn
conditions
Aberdeen
2007/2008
Aberdeen
2008/ 2009
Warwickshire
2009/2010
Herefordshire
2008/ 2009
Aberdeen
2009/2010
Shropshire
2007/2008
Very low all
season
Low all season
Low in autumn
and medium in
spring
Low in autumn
and medium in
spring
Moderate in
autumn and
severe in
summer
Very severe
from early on
Cool and drier Cool and very
than average wet, early frosts
Dry at sowing
Early winter
Wet
Wet, cool
Wet, warmer
Soil treatment
effect
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Variety effect
No
No
Yes
Yes
-
Yes
6.8
1857
6.6
2407
6.5
1720
6.1
999
6.6
2127
6.5
1720
22.6
7.1
11.3
83
24.6
35
pH pre trial
Calcium pre trial
(mg/l)
Clubroot severity
pre trial
(bioassay)
74
Project conclusions
• Clubroot can cause significant yield loses in OSR even
crop failure.
• Neither varietal resistance or soil amendments offer
complete and reliable control.
• The risks of clubroot increase when brassicas are
grown in short rotations (less than 1 in 5?)
• Preventative action with lime will be beneficial in
managing this disease where pressure is low.
• Varietal resistance is likely to be very successful
initially but will be eroded in short rotations.
75
Topic sheet
76
Oilseed Rape 2012 and beyond
• New RL varieties showing increased yield and
improved agronomic characteristics
• Watch for signs of clubroot - consider management
options
Thank you
78
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