Three Worlds Meet, 1200 B.C.E- 1500 C.E Native Americans and Africans develop complex societies and cultures. Europeans explore and conquer parts of the New World and launch a massive slave trade. Main Idea Ancient peoples came from Asia to the Americas and over time developed complex civilizations. Why It Matters Now Archaeologists and other scientists continue to make new discoveries about these ancient people. Ancient Peoples Come to the Americas • During the last Ice Age (20,000 years ago), hunters cross from Asia to Alaska over Beringia. Hunting and Gathering • Hunted large animals until climate warms. • 12,000-10,000 years ago, hunted smaller game, gather nuts and berries. Agriculture Develops • Planting of crops begins in central Mexico 10,000 to 5,000 years ago. • Some cultures remain nomadicmoving in search of food and water. Early Cultures of the Americas • About 3,000 years ago, inhabitants begin to forming large communities. Empires of Middle and South America • The Olmec flourish 1200 to 400 B.C.E. along Gulf of Mexico. • The Maya, 250-400 C.E. in Guatemala and Yucatán. • Aztec begin building civilization in the Valley of Mexico in 1200s. • Inca establish empire around 1200 C.E. in Western South America. • Cultures have cities or ceremonial centers; some have writing. Ancient Desert Farmers • About 3,000 years ago, groups begin growing crops in Southwest. • Groups establish civilizations, 300 B.C.E. to 1400 C.E. -Hohokam settle in river valleys. -Anasazi live in Mesa tops, cliff sides, canyons Casa Grande/Mesa Verde Mound Builders • Adena, Hopewell, Mississippian establish trading societies. • Adena and Hopewell build huge burial and animal-shaped mounds. • Mississippian people build giant pyramidal mounds. Great Serpent Mound/ Cahokia North America Societies Around 1492 MAIN IDEA By 1500, a variety of Native American groups- each with a distinct culture- lived in North America. WHY IT MATTERS NOW Many American today claim one or more of these cultures as part of their heritage. Northwest Coast • Large communities live along streams, seashore, and in forest. • Kwakiutl, Nootka, Haida gather shellfish, hunt whales, otters, seals. • Totems were symbols of ancestral spirits, on masks, boats, and poles • Potlaches-families give away possessions in special ceremonies. Totems California Tribes • Kashaya Pomo hunt waterfowl along northwest coast. • Yurok and Hupa gather acorns and fished. Southwest • By 1300, Pueblo settle near waterway, build multistory houses. • Hopi, Acoma live near cliffs and develop irrigation systems. -Grew corn, beans, squash; build kivas, underground ceremonial rooms. -Navajo and Apache adopted practices. Great Plains • Semi-nomadic tribes. • Hunted bison on foot. -Used the whole animal. • Mandan, Dakota (Sioux), and Pawnee. Eastern Woodlands • Tribes like Iroquois build villages in forests; farm, hunt, gather. • Northeast rely on animals for food, clothing; Southeast, on farming. • Matrilineal- Ancestry is traced through the mother’s family. Trading Networks • Trade is one of the biggest factors in bringing tribes into contact. Land Use • The source of life, not to be sold. • Disturb it only for important reasons, like food gathering and farming. Religious Beliefs • Nature is filled with spirits; ancestors guide people. • Some cultures believed in one supreme being. Social Organization • Kinship- Ties among relatives, ensure customs are passed on. • Division of Labor- Tasks by gender, age, status; to create social order. • Groups organized by families; some in clans with common ancestor.