Helicopter/Ship Interface Testing

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HELICOPTER/SHIP
INTERFACE TESTING
& CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT
SETP/SFTE – San Jose
Flight Test Safety Workshop
5 May 2010
Copyright ©QinetiQ .Ltd 2010
1
Paul Edwards
Technical Manager and TP Tutor
Royal Navy 1985 – 2004
ETPS RW TP COURSE 1998
Bob Badham
Principal FTE Tutor
A&AEE/DERA/QinetiQ Boscombe Down
ETPS RW FTE COURSE 1980
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The Need for HSIT Training
Operating a helicopter to a moving deck is a
challenging undertaking
Operators need a clearance that will keep them
as safe as possible while providing the greatest
flexibility possible
Testers need to provide this clearance SAFELY
& EFFICIENTLY
To do this, Testers need to understand HSIT
methodologies and their options thoroughly.
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What are we testing?
The ability of pilot & machine to effect a safe
deck transition (take off & landing)
Configuration variation is immense
Desired envelope to be defined by end user
Desired configuration range may not be
completely known
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User requirement
Ships
Aircraft
Weather
Sea state
Deck motion
Day/Night
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Configuration!?
The challenge is CONFIGURATION
Audience participation phase ……
What principal areas do we need to consider in
our configuration management?
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Configuration
“The particular arrangement or pattern of a group
of related things”
In HSIT, what configurations do we need to
control?
• Aircraft
• Environment
• Ship
• Personnel
 Pilot
 Aircraft crew
 Trial team
 Ship crew
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Configuration 1 - Aircraft
AUM
Referred mass
CG
FCS
Clearance for degraded mode?
External Stores
Handling & Performance effects?
Jettisonable ballast?
Deck Interface
Clearance for degraded mode?
Cockpit Armour
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Configuration 2 – Ship – Flight Deck
Ship configuration becomes important and can
create and move “cliff edges”
•
Course & Speed
•
Deck height
•
Stabilisers
•
Freeboard
•
Motion
•
Instrumentation
•
Deck obstacles
•
Spots
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Configuration 2 – Ship – Environment
• Electro-Magnetic
• Landing Aids
• Deck markings
• Light and Lights
• Relative wind
• True relative wind – how measured?
• Leads to Heel
• Deck Wake
• Exhaust Gases
• Propulsion state
10
Configuration 3 – Ambient Environment
• Density Altitude
• Relative Wind
• Turbulence
• Spray
• Salt Accretion
• DVE – Weather/Light
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Configuration – Pilot
• Pilot seat
• Flight Equipment
• Body Armour
• NBC equipment
• NVG
• Landing Technique
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Prediction
We cannot test every element of the
configuration matrix
Efficient testing requires us to maximise use of
prediction
Without compromising safety of either the tester
or the end user.
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HSIT Approach
We can attempt to predict through CFD or ..
We can go out and test
The best solution is almost certainly a combination
PREDICTIVE
EMPIRICAL
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Dutch Approach
National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR)
Predictive > Experimental > Analytical
• Ship wind tunnel tests (spray & turbulence)
• Low speed testing
Candidate SHOL
Flight testing
Final SHOL
15
UK Approach
Experimental > Analytical > Predictive >
Instrumented aircraft:
• Aircraft hover performance
• Tail rotor performance
• Control margins and response (tail rotor, cyclic, collective, engine)
• Installed engine performance data
Commence DLs at benign point
Expand incrementally – 1 parameter at a time
Analysis
“Read up/down” using experience
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Identification of Critical Parameters
UK method based on predicted critical
parameters:
• Torque
• Tail rotor
• Control Margins
• Handling Qualities
Data is recorded & analysed
Parameters are incremented for next test series
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Critical Parameter Increments
Isolate individual parameter changes
Predict limits & safe zones
Maintain safety
Reduce data points required
Configuration management in all areas essential
for valid & accurate predictions
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Rating Scales
Use rating scales for all critical parameters to
provide equivalence
Rating scales for:
• Torque
• Tail rotor
• Control margins
• Handling/Effort
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Test Cycle
PLAN TEST
SERIES
CONDUCT
ANALYSE
& PREDICT
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Test Cycle - PLAN
Test series
PLAN TEST
SERIES
CONDUCT
Maintain referred
mass  ?
ANALYSE
& PREDICT
Move along relative
wind axis
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Test Cycle - CONDUCT
Regular refuel
3 different approaches
per condition
PLAN TEST
SERIES
CONDUCT
ANALYSE
& PREDICT
Rate all critical parameters
for each landing & take-off
End points?
Pilot/crew fatigue?
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Test Cycle – ANALYSE & PREDICT
PLAN TEST
SERIES
CONDUCT
Assemble all data
Read up/down as
appropriate
ANALYSE
& PREDICT
Analyse trends
Target next test series
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Trials Progression
CAUTIOUS
PROGRESSIVE
Change 1 parameter at a time!
Wind speed
• Wind direction
• A/C weight
• A/C configuration
• Ship motion (ideally)
• & lighting
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HSIT & Configuration Management
Managing the configuration is essential for safe
and efficient testing
But is that not the case in all flight test?
The difference with HSIT is the breadth and
variety.
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Knowledge is the Key
The knowledge is out there!
LEARN TO TEST …..
… TEST TO LEARN
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Questions?
Copyright ©QinetiQ .Ltd 2010
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