Re-inventing mobility: The emerging electric car technologies

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Re-inventing mobility:
The emerging electric
car technologies
Bernadette Gruber
Corinna Mitterhuber
KS „Energy and Sustainable Development “
Mai 2011
Contents

Historical development of electric cars

General concept of electric cars




Characteristics of electric car
Comparison with a combustion engine
Storage systems of electric cars
Hybrid propulsion
Contents

Economic aspects of e-cars

Costs and profitability

Energy economical aspects of electric cars
Market development of electric car technologies


Application possibilities for electric vehicles

Conclusion & Outlook
Historical development of electric cars
Early Years of Electric Cars: 1890 - 1930

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First electric vehicle invented in 1828
Many innovations followed
The interest in electric cars increased greatly in the late
1890s and early 1900s
First real and practical electric car (with capacity for
passengers) designed by William Morrison
1902 Phaeton built by the Woods Motor Vehicle
Company of Chicago
Figure: 1902 Wood's Electric Phaeton
(Inventors, http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/History-Of-Electric-Vehicles.htm,
7.5. 2011).
Historical development of electric cars
Decline of Electric Cars: 1930 – 1990
 The electric car declined in popularity because of the
following reasons:




Better system of roads  need for longer-range vehicles
Reduction in price of gasoline  gasoline was affordable to the
average consumer
Invention of the electric starter disposed of the need for the hand
crank.
Initiation of mass production of internal combustion engine
vehicles by Henry Ford.
Historical development of electric cars




The mid-1930s until the 1960s: dead years for electric
vehicle development and for their application as personal
transportation
In the 1960s and 1970s: imperative necessity for
alternative-fueled vehicles  renewed interest on
electric vehicles
The first electric truck, the Battronic Truck, constructed in
the early 1960s.
The companies Sebring-Vanguard and Elcar Corporation
= leaders in the electric car production
Historical development of electric cars
The Revival: 1990s
 Efforts by the governments to more stringent air
emissions requirements and regulations requiring
reductions in gasoline use and Zero Emission Vehicle
requirements from several states  revival
 Electric conversions of familiar gasoline powered
vehicles as well as electric vehicles designed from the
ground up became available
(reached highway speeds with ranges of 50 to 150 miles between
recharging)

Since 2001: Phoenix designs fully functional electric
trucks and Sport Utility Vehicle for commercial fleet use
Figure: Phoenix Motorcar
(Inventors,
http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventions/a/History-OfElectric Vehicles.htm, 7.5. 2011).
General concept of electric cars
Characteristics of electric cars
 Core elements: battery, electric motor, plug- in system,
differential
 Efficiency ratio is close to 90 percent
needed energy
depends on battery (type, age, temperature), the way of
charging and the general construction of motor and car
itself
 Maximum power of the motor is reached from standstill,
leads to “smooth” way of driving
 Possibility to use energy of break application to refeed it
into battery
General concept of electric cars
Comparison with a combustion engine powered car

Providing energy:



Efficiency ratio:
 Electric motor: close to 90 percent


E-cars get energy out of battery
Conventional car gets energy out of combustion engine
Combustion engine: 25-30 percent
In case of e-car mature efficiency losses occur during
electricity production
General concept of electric cars
Comparison with a combustion engine powered car

Emissions:


E-car: Occur during electricity production; positive for e.g fine
dust
Combustion engine: emissions occur during driving

Electric cars produce much less noise than combustion
engine powered cars

Electric cars have no gearbox
General concept of electric cars
Combustion engine
powered car:
Electric car:
Figure: Coparison convential car/ electric car (Electrification Coalition 2009)
Fuel system is on the back
side, where it transmits
power to the gearbox, which
powers the wheels
Battery is stored at back side,
where it transmits the energy to
the electric motor which powers
the wheels
General concept of electric cars
Storage systems for electric cars

Lead acid batteries


Nickel cadmium batteries


Inferior to new technologies due to low energy density and high
toxicity
Nickel metal hydride batteries


no essential role for powering electric vehicles
Very high energy density, good efficiency-to- size-ratio, very long
lasting and unproblematic in terms of safety BUT very high price
for raw materials
Lithium ion batteries
General concept of electric cars
Lithium ion batteries:
most promising storage technology for electric vehicles

Advantages:




Highest energy density of all battery systems operating at room
temperature
lower number of cells needed
20-30 percent lighter than nickel cadmium batteries
No memory effect
Disadvantages:


In case of destruction toxic gases and flammable material can
occur
Very expensive
General concept of electric cars
Hybrid propulsion:



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Combination technology between combustion engine
and electric engine
In parallel hybrid systems both engines power the shaft
In series hybrid systems the combustion engine is
powering a generator which transmits energy to the
electric motor
In combined hybrid systems one can change between
parallel and series propulsion
General concept of electric cars
Hybrid propulsion
Hybrid-electric vehicle:



Figure: Hybrid-electric-vehicle
(Electrification Coalition 2009)
Either parallel, series or
combined system
Contains liquid fuel tank
and battery
No plug-in system for
charging the battery
external
General concept of electric cars
Hybrid propulsion
Plug-in hybrid vehicle:



Figure: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
(Electrification Coalition 2009)
Either series or combined
system
Contains an on-board
generator
Possible to run as sole
electric vehicle through
plug-in for external
charging of battery
Economic aspects of e-cars
Costs and profitability:
 Electric vehicles of the middle
class with range of about 150
km: 10,000 to 15,000 euro
 Very low operating costs
 Daimler: sells its future e-cars
quickly profitably  hopes for
a start-up funding from the
Federal Government
 In many countries: purchase
of e-cars remunerated by
subsidies
Figures: Costs of vehicles (2010 and 2030)
(Kloess et al., 2009: 4,5)
Economic aspects of e-cars
Energy economical aspects of
e-cars:
 Construction of a corresponding
charging infrastructure (charging
stations)
 In Austria: 2,600 electric service
stations (May 2010)
 To recharge 15 to 20 kWh, which
a small car on 100 kilometres
requires, lasts via a normal
household outlet from six to eight
hours.
Figure: Uniform charging connector
(Mennekes,
http://www.mennekes.de/web, 10.05.2011).
Figure : Charging station for electric cars
(Mennekes, http://www.mennekes.de/web/,
10.05.2011).
Economic aspects of e-cars


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The electric propulsion:
efficiency = about 90%
Electric propulsion is
principally as "clean" as
the energy source
A photovoltaics-carport
(solar service station)
considered as a charging
station of electric cars for
the future
Figure :Photovoltaics-carport as a charging station of electric
cars
(Das Photovoltaik Portal, http://www.photovoltaiko.de/,
09.05.2011).
Economic aspects of e-cars
Market development of electric car technologies:
 Market for e-cars still depend on direct subsidies, tax
subsidizations or on clearly higher fuel prices
 According to the most probable scenario: in 2020 
26 % of new cars in China, Japan, the USA and Western Europe
could have electric or hybrid propulsion
 Challenges for the electric car market: energy storage
capacities, recharge times, infrastructure requirements, costs of the
batteries,…


Without any technological breakthrough: the range of an
electric car will furthermore amount to only 250 to 300
km.
At the present time: automotive corporations cooperate
closely with manufacturers of electric car batteries
Economic aspects of e-cars



In 2009: global electric
vehicle market = more than
26 billion dollars worth &
probably grows at a
compound annual growth
rate (CAGR) of 18.5%
between 2010 and 2015
The plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles-segment probably
increase at a CAGR of
81.6%
The hybrid electric vehicles
market: CAGR of 19.1%
Figure: Summary figure – electric vehicle shipments
and value by configuration from 2005 to 2015
(Concensus scenario) (in $ Millions)
(Bcc Research,
http://www.bccresearch.com/report/electric-vehiclespower-sources-fcb019d.html, 11.05.2011).
Application possibilities for
electric vehicles
The development of electric cars or vehicles can be divided
broadly in the following directions or trends:

Industrial vehicles
Figure: Mafi- electric load cart at Daimler-Chrysler
(Schnitzler, http://de.factolex.com/Elektrokarren,
30.4.2011)
Application possibilities for
electric vehicles

Development of new passenger cars:
 Urban vehicles
Figure: CityEL
(Firma Haberhauer,
http://www.elektromobilcenter.com/, 30.4.2011)

Electric vehicles suited for highway
Figure : Think City
(Stegmann,
http://www.motorkultur.com/de/home/visionen/13artikel/4929-elektroauto-think-eine-erfolgsstory.html,
30.4.2011)
Application possibilities for
electric vehicles

Alteration from customary cars to electric vehicles
Figure: Renault Twingo Electra
(MobiLEM,
http://www.mobilem.ch/fahrzeuge/fahrz
main.htm, 30.4.2011)

Study vehicles and experimental vehicles
Figure: Keio University Eliica
(Deep Dive Media Automotive Network,
http://www.futurecars.com/futurecars/electric-cars/eliica-8-wheel-electrictears-it-up-one-wheel-at-a-time, 30.4.2011)
Conclusion & Outlook

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Huge potential for the further emerging of electric cars
Although there are still problems, it is important to push
this technology  R&D
Electrical outlet and electric cable are not required in
future anymore, because the electric car of the future
"refuels" its power fully automatically and without
contacting by induction while driving or parking.
Figure: Power from the street. The electric car of the future
"refuels" its power fully automatically and without contacting by
induction while driving or parking.
(Glocalist,
http://www.glocalist.com/news/kategorie/vermischtes/titel/daselektroauto-der-zukunft-tankt-beim-fahren/, 07.05.2011)
Videos


A brief history of the electric car
Adaptera Exclusive- 3 wheeled electric wonder on the
road
Thank you for your attention!
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