Red Eléctrica de España - National Association of Regulatory Utility

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Opening session: the Spanish TSO
experience on renewable integration
March 2011
Dirección de Operación
Contents


Spanish TSO presentation
Overview of the Spanish electric sector
Current regulatory framework of Spanish renewable
units


Challenges
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Who is Red Eléctrica?
Red Eléctrica de España (REE) is the Spanish transmission system operator (TSO)
REE is operating the mainland system and the island systems
REE was the first company in the world dedicated exclusively to power
transmission and the operation of electrical systems.
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Red Eléctrica de España (REE): Mission and principles.

Operates the system to guarantee the power supply.


Since 2006 also in the extra-peninsular systems
Designs, builds and maintains the transmission network.

Since 2007 as exclusive transmission company
SHARE CAPITAL (Aprox.):
FREEFLOAT
80%
Transmission Grid
Main magnitudes (SPPS)
Lines
SEPI
20 %
Subst.
SEPI: Spanish Stated Owned Holding Company

Closure
2010
400 kV [km ct]
18,576
 220 kV [km ct]
17,221
Transformers 400/X kV [MVA]
69,059
 220 & 400 kV [nº bays]
> 3,500
It has proved fundamental for the fast and secure implementation of
electricity market and integration of RES
4
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Spanish transmission system




REE: Spanish Transmission System Operator.
34000 km of lines and 60000 MW of transforming capacity.
Spanish peak demands 45 GW and off-peak demands of 19-25 GW.
Planned reinforcements 2009-2016, partly due to RES integration:
Sp e cific in frastru ctu re
W h o le p lan n e d in frastru ctu re
Lin e s an d cab le s
Lines and cables
N e w New
o n e ones
s [k m[km]
]
Re fittin
g
[k
m
]
Refitting [km]
Substations
Su b statio n s
New bays
N e w New
b ay ssubstations
ofnsubstations
N e w Extension
su b statio
s
Ex te n sio n o f su b statio n s
Transformers
Additional capacity [MVA]
Tran sfo rm e rs
Whole planned
To tal
400kV infrastructure
220kV
Total
1265612656
8308 8308
400kV
7488
7488
3850
3850
220kV
5168
5168
4458
4458
Specific
planned
p lan ninfrastructure
e d to in te grate
RESto
integrate
RES
To tal
400kV
220kV
Total
400kV
220kV
4465 4465
3504
961
3504
961
1730 1730
Total
400kV
220kV
Total
400kV
400kV
220kV
To tal
400kV
3476
1163
2313
3476 399
1163106
2313
293
39
20
329
399 405
106 76
293
39 59
2018
To tal
405
76
329
Total
400 / 220 kV 400 / 132 kV
68540
52450
16090
59
220kV
220kV
18
19
41
19
41
Total
400 / 220 kV 400 / 132 kV
5305
3500
1805
To tal 4 0 0 / 2 2 0 kV 4 0 0 / 1 3 2 kV To tal 4 0 0 / 2 2 0 kV 4 0 0 / 1 3 2 kV
Reactances
and Capacitors
A d d itio
n al cap acity
[M V A ] 68540
[MVAR]
Total 52450
3900
400kV5305
16090
2800
3500220kV
1100
Re actan ce s an d C ap acito rs
To tal
400kV
220kV
[M V A R]
3900
2800
1100
Highlighted lines correspond to
planned lines from 2008-2016.
1805
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Spanish
inteconnection capacity
Interconnection capacity compared to installed capacity
FR  ES =1,5%
PO  ES = 1,5%
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Potencia Inst. ESPAÑA = 94 604 MW
MA  ES = 0,6%
 Limited interconnection capacity with France, security link with the
European Interconnected system. In practice almost an “electrical
island”.
UE 10%
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Spanish energy context
The 20/20/20 European Strategy is the key driver of the Spanish energy
model change
20 / 20 / 20 Strategy
 The development of renewable energy
20%
reduction
in GHG
emissions
20% of final
energy
coming
from
renewables
sources and the reduction in
consumption imply a reduction in GHG
emissions.
20%
reduction in
primary
energy
consumption
 Renewable energy integration into the
electric grid produces an improvement in
the system efficiency.
7
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Installed capacity January 2011
Technology
Solar
Biomass
Mini-hydro
CSP
0,7%
2,1%
0,7%
Cogeneration
6,2%
Solar PV
3,8%
Waste Treat.
1,3%
Hydro
17,5%
Nuclear
7,8%
Wind
20,9%
Coal
11,3%
Combined cycle
25,8%
Fuel-Gas
1,9%
Hydro-power
MW
16 657
17.5
Nuclear
7 .455
7.8
Coal
10.789
11.3
Fuel-Gas
1 849
1.9
Combined cycles
24.641
Total (ordinary regime)
61.391
25.9
64.3
Wind power generation
19976
20.9
Solar PV
3.634
3.8
Solar CSP
630
0.7
Biomass
684
0.7
Special regime hydro
1 965
2.1
Cogeneration
5 946
6.2
Waste treatment
1 204
1.3
Total (special regime)
33.791
35.7
Total
95.430
%
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Demand supply 2010
260.230 GWh = 189.071 Net Ordinary Regime
+ 90.513 Net Special Regime
-4.412 Hydro-pump storage
-8.338 International exchanges
Solar Small Hydro
2,4%
2,40%
CHP and other
RES
12,8%
Hydro-power
14,0%
Special Regulation Regime
Nuclear
21,6%
Wind
15,6%
Combined cycle
23,0%
Coal
7,6%
Renewable:
Non Renewable:
Minihydro
Cogeneration
Biomass
Coal
Wind
Fuel - Gas oil
Industrial waste Refinery gas
Urban waste
Solar
Fuel-Gas
0,6%
Natural gas
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Present wind power capacity and evolution
Installed Wind power generation evolution 1996-2010
22.000
19.976
20.000
18.390
15.873
18.000
13.908
16.000
MW
14.000
11.099
9.653
12.000
8.304
10.000
6.138
8.000
4.927
6.000
3.442
2.298
4.000
kW/km2
1.525
2.000
183
428
798
0
Installed Wind Capacity January 2011
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Renewable Energies’ Plan for Spain (August 2005): ~20,000 MW by the year 2010.

Official Network Planning for 2016 contemplates ~29,000 MW.

Renewable Energies Plan for Spain 2010-2020 ~38,000 MW.
10
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Development of the Spain-France Interconnection: A priority
Spain –and Portugal- form a peninsula, also electrically, with weak electrical
interconnections with the rest of European Union.
- Development
of
Spain-France
Interconnection with a new 2 x 1000 MW DC
underground line
-1st step for objective of 4.000 MW of
commercial capacity
-Necessary for building the IEM
-Fundamental for RES integration in Spain
-(& Portugal)
11
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Current regulation: RD 661/2007. Rights and Duties


Rights

To deliver energy to the grid through the distribution company or to sell it
in the market receiving regulated retribution (regulated tariff or premium)

Priority of access to the grids.

To deliver all the produced energy
Duties



To deliver energy in suitable conditions which doesn’t cause disruptions
in the system.
To be adhered to a generation control center. (Power Plants > 10 MW).
This control center will be the intermediary and speaker with the System
Operator
To carry out the rule about avoiding the problem of tension holes1. It’s a
condition to receive the regulated tariff or premium.
(1) Operation Procedure 12.3. This is a problem which occurred with the old wind machines.
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Economic Regime in current regulation: RD 661/2007




Possibilities

To deliver the energy to transmission or distribution network with a regulated
tariff (c€kWh)

To sell the energy in the market: Retribution= Market price + premium
Regulated tariff

Fixed amount of money for all periods for each type of energy

Hydroelectric, biomass, biogas: they could have hourly discrimination.
Market : Retribution= Reference Price + Premium

Cup and Floor are established for the total amount of price+ premium

Premium is variable: Total amount to receive > Cup and > Floor.
Power Plants >50MW must go the market
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Market integration of wind energy
140
120
(€/MWh)
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
Marginal Market Price (€/MWh)
Wind Market Price (€/MWh)
Wind Bonus (€/MWh)
Fixed tariff price

Possibility of accessing the daily wholesale market and updating the schedules in
the intra-day markets according to new production forecasts.

As for any type of generation, agents are penalized for their deviations and pay for
the balancing energy needed to counteract their deviation.

Reserve bands are calculated by the TSO and paid by the final consumers.
14
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
RD 661/2007. Economic Regime

For renewable energy there is a retribution table for the first 25
year and other for after.
c€/kWh
Wind Onshore
Wind Offshore
Regulated
Tariff
Reference
Premium
7.8183
3.1273
9.0004
c€/kWh
After 25 years Wind Onshore
Limits
Superior
Inferior
9.0692
16.9494
7.6098
Regulated
Tariff
6.5341
Wind Offshore

For photovoltaic it isn’t possible to go to the market, there is only
tariffs:
Fotovoltaic c€/kWh
<100 kW
47.0181
100 kW-10 MW
44.5751
10-50 MW
24.5311
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Recent modifications of regulation for SRG
Recently, National regulation oriented to control of generation to be connected per year,
securing economic and technical sustainability

RD1578/2008 for Solar FV, extending RD661 objectives with quotas of 500-400 MW per
year with progressive reduction of tariffs
 emphasis on roof plants over floor plants

RDL6/2009 for the rest of SRG, establishing quotas per year for plants to be
commissioned (upto ≈ 2,5 GW Solar Thermal in 2013; upto ≈ 23 GW WP in 2012),
demonstrating some pre-requisites:

Access and connection authorization issued by REE or distribution company

Administrative authorization for power plants > 100 kW

License for Commissioning

Deposit of a bank guarantee (for wind: 20€/kW; for Solar Thermal: 100€/kW)

Financial resources at least for 50% of the total

Purchase -or contract- at least for 50% of the equipment

Authorisation for gas access and water supply (when applicable)
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Photovoltaic updatings. RD 1578/2008

Installed power: It will be updated every year

The Register of Pre-establishment of retribution is created to enter all of the
requested power plants.

A quota of installed power is established for the first year and it will be updated.
First year:
 Facades: 267 MW
 Floor : 133 MW

Retribution:
c€/kWh
Type I
Type II
RD 1578/2008
<20 kW
34
>20 kW
32
All
32
RD 661/2007
<100 kW
100 kW-10 MW
10-50 MW
47.0181
44.5751
24.5311
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Development of Special Regime Regulation
1980
Act 82/1980, determines, for the first time, distributors obligation of
purchasing renewable energy at a regulated price for
1994
R.D 2366/1994, establishes a new regulation for special regime
1998
R.D. 2818/1998, adequates special regime regulation to new Act 54/97, of
electric power system
2002
R.D. 841/2002, regulates and incentives special regime participation in
generation market
2004
R.D. 436/2004, merges all the existing regulationa and defines a new
economical framework for special regimen
2007
R.D. 661/2007, updates economical and legal framework for special
regime generation, including installed power goals
2008
R.D.1578/2008, modifies, reducing incentives and increasing
requirementts, fotovoltaic energy regulation
2009
R.D.6/2009, creates a special registration mechanism in order to reach
the objectives of installed power in an efficient way
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Payment of Technical Services
TECHNICAL
CONSTRAINTS
Final demand depending on the metered energy
SECONDARY
RESERVE
(excepting pumping units and exports)
Units which deviate from their programs
SECONDARY
ENERGY
IN FAVOUR OF THE
SYSTEM
UPWARD
UNBALANCES
TERTIARY
ENERGY
(less consumption,
more generation)
DOWNWARD
UMBALANCES
(more consumption,
less generation)
DEVIATION
MANAGEMENT
Receive DMP
Pay DMP
IN OPOSSITION TO THE SYSTEM
Receive minimum of:
•DMP
•Average price of DOWNWARD energy used
(SR + TR + DM)
Pay Maximum of:
• DMP
• Average price of UPWARD energy used (SR +
TR + DM)
Deficits and surpluses are paid by final demand proportionally to
metered energy (excepting pumping units and exports)
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Influence of solar photovoltaic in system operation
2% of the total energy demand in 2009.
 Present installed capacity: 3 392 MW.
 Reduced observability by the SO. Must be solved.
 Behavior in summer in accordance to demand requirements.
 In winter, peak demand is in the evening. No contribution.
 Connection to Transmission/Distribution: 2/98%

YEAR
SOLAR PV PRODUCTION
(GWh)
2005
40
2006
103
2007
466
2008
2 477
2009
5 347
Source CNE
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Integration of solar thermoelectric in system operation
Present installed capacity 481 MW.
 In the short term: increase of 500 MW per year.
 Two technologies: parabolic trough and tower.
 Connection to Transmission/Distribution: 63/37%

Year 2007: first commercial solar
thermoelectric plant installed (PS-10)
 Installed capacity: 11 MW (as a part of the
Solucar project with expected 300 MW en
2013).
 Generated energy in 2009 : 125 GWh.
 Planning 2010-2012: 500 MW per year of new installed capacity.
Planta PS-10
 Positive correlation with demand in summer.
 In winter molten salt storage and hybridation with natural gas allow production
during the daily load peaks becoming mostly manageable generation.

21
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA

Legal framework (I)
Definition of Special Regime

Law 54/1997
 Article 27: Special regime of electricity generation
Electricity generation activities shall be regarded as generation under the
special regime system in the following cases whenever they are carried out
from installations whose installed power is no greater than 50 MW:
 Cogeneration or other forms of electricity generation associated with non-electricity
operations, provided they involve high efficiency output
 Whenever non-consumable renewable energies, biomass or biofuels of any type are used
as primary energy, provided their holder does not engage in generation activities under the
ordinary system
 Whenever non-renewable waste is used as primary energy
22
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
 Royal Decree 661/2007

Legal framework (II)
Legal and economic framework for Special Regime production which
includes:
 Type of installations that can be considered as Special Regime
 Procedure to include plants in the Special Regime Register
 Rights and obligations of the Special Regime producers
 Priority of dispatch over conventional generation
 Market integration. Two options:
 Regulated rate: Constant feed-in tariff per MWh produced
 Selling the electricity on the electricity production market: price
established in the day-ahead and intraday organised market (OMEL)
or the price that has been freely negotiated by the owner or the
installation representative (bilateral contract), complemented by a
premium dependent on the technology of the installation.
 Economic framework
 Requirements to participate in the system adjustment services
 Cost of deviations
23
Economic Framework (I)
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Art 24.1.a: Sell trough distributor
or transport grid
Art 24.1.b: Sell in the electricity
energy production market

Feed-in tariff

Price of the organized market

For some technologies (CHP, minihydro, biomass…) depends on the
periods they generate.

Premium:


For renewable energies: With upper
and lower limits for the sum of the
reference market price an the
reference premium

For non renewables: Fixed premium
Reactive energy supplement



If P>=10MW units may receive
instructions from the OS
High efficiency supplement (for
CHP)
Supplement for voltage dip ride
through capabilities (maximum
period 5 years, until 31/12/2013)
For wind only.

Reactive energy supplement

If P>=10MW may receive instructions
from the operator of the system.

High efficiency supplement (for CHP)

Supplement for voltage dip ride
through capabilities (maximum
period 5 years, until 31/12/2013) For
wind only.
24
Economic framework (II)
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Art 24.1.a: Sell through distributor
or transport grid
Art 24.1.b: Sell in the electricity
energy production market

Directly or through a representative
or trader

Directly or through a representative
or trader

Cost of deviations

Cost of deviations



If have the duty to have hourly
measuring equipment: As
established in PO 14.4
If not: exempt
Participation in the system
adjustment services

Mandatory ones: Such as
“Technical constraint management”


As established in PO 14.4
Participation in the system
adjustment services

Mandatory ones: Such as
“Technical constraint management”

Manageable installations may
participate in optional services
(subject to prior authorization by
the administration and technical
authorization by the SO)
25
RED ELÉCTRICA DE
ESPAÑA
Challenges
The current high penetration of RES must be significantly increased due to
ambitious national objectives (2020: 20% of Efinal  ≈ 40% Eelectric)
19.975 MW*
38.000 MW**
> 3.500 MW*
630 MW*
5.079 MW**
8.367 MW**
Technical challenges motivated by particular features of new generation:
• Market/Regulatory changes
Location far from load and sometimes grid
• TSO management of new RES connections
Vulnerability to incidents(voltage dips)
(queues
Primary energy: Lack of firmness and control
dispatchable resources
* Power installed Dec 2010
** NAP for 2020 submitted to EC in June10
(Under review)
mangement)
and
tests
for
more
•Technical Requirements (voltage dips, freq.
regulation, voltage control, …)
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