Prenatal development

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Prenatal
development &
Newborns
PowerPoint by: Monique Johnson
Prenatal development
• The prenatal development consists of three
trimesters
• First trimester
• Month 1
• Month 2
• Month 3
st
1
•
•
Trimester
4 Weeks
•
the neural tube (which becomes
the brain and spinal cord), the
digestive system, and the heart
and circulatory system begin to
form
•
the beginnings of the eyes and ears
are developing
•
tiny limb buds appear (which will
develop into arms and legs)
•
the heart is beating
8 Weeks
•
circulatory, nervous, digestive, and
urinary systems are developed
•
Becoming more human shaped,
but the head is larger than the body
•
the mouth is developing tooth
buds (which will become baby
teeth)
•
the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears
•
The main organs are developing
and can hear the baby’s heartbeat.
• After 8 weeks, the embryo is now
referred to as a fetus Although the
fetus is only 1 to 1 1/2 inches long at
this point, all major organs and
systems have been formed.
• the arms and legs are clearly
visible.
9-12 weeks
• external genital organs are
developed
• fingernails and toenails appear
• eyelids are formed
• fetal movement increases
• the arms and legs are fully formed
• the voice box (larynx) begins to
form in the trachea
• Even though the organs and body
systems are fully formed by the
end of 12 weeks, the fetus cannot
survive independently.
Prenatal development
cont’d
• Second trimester
• Month 4
• Month 5
• Month 6
nd
2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Trimester
The weight of the fetus will increase
and fetus becomes a baby
At end of second trimester, around
6th month, the fetus will be about 13
to 16 inches long and weighs about 2
to 3 pounds.
The fetus kicks, moves, and can turn
from side to side.
The eyes moved to front of the face
and the ears moved to side of face
The fetus is developing reflexes such
as swallowing and sucking.
The fetus can respond to certain
stimuli.
The placenta is fully developed.
The brain will undergo its most
important period of growth from the
5th month on.
•
Fingernails on fingers and toes are
grown and the fingers and toes are
fully separated.
•
The fetus goes through sleep cycle
•
Skin is wrinkly and red, covered with
soft, downy hair (called lanugo).
•
Hair is growing on the head of the
fetus.
•
Fat begins to form on the fetus.
•
Eyelids are beginning to open and
the eyebrows and eyelashes are
visible.
•
Fingerprints and toeprints have
formed.
•
Rapid growth is continuing in fetal
size and weight.
Prenatal development
cont’d
• Third trimester
• Month 7
• Month 8
• Month 9
rd
3
Trimester
•
the fetus continues to grow in size
and weight.
•
Most babies are born with the irises
of the eyes as slate blue. The
permanent eye color will not appear
until several days or weeks after
birth.
•
The lungs are still maturing
•
The moves to head-down position.
•
The fetus can suck its thumb and has
the ability to cry.
•
The fetus is about 19 to 21 inches long
and weighs, on average, six to nine
pounds.
•
By 38 to 40 weeks, the fetus' lanugo
has disappeared almost completely.
•
The fetus can see and hear.
•
By 38 to 40 weeks, the lungs have
matured completely.
•
The brain continues to develop.
•
The bones of the skull remain soft to
make it easier to pass through the
birth canal.
Newborn reflexes
• Babinski reflex- the toes move when the sole of the
feet is touched
• Moro reflex- the baby moves arms and legs and cry
due to loud noises
• Rooting reflex- the head will move when the cheek is
touched
• Sucking reflex- will automatically happen when a
finger or nipple is in the mouth.
• Grasping reflex- the newborn will grab anything that is
put in their hands.
Influences
• The fetus is most vulnerable during the first 12
weeks. During this period of time, all of the
major organs and body systems are forming
and can be damaged if the fetus is exposed to
drugs, German measles, radiation, tobacco,
and chemical and toxic substances.
• The environment has a huge impact on how
the baby is developed due to the substance
called teratogens it can cause birth defects
and death during the prenatal development.
Influences
• Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, and etc. can also
have a negative impact on the fetus.
• Alcohol is the most common impact on the
fetus and it causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
(FAS).
• Every year 10,000 children are diagnosed with
FAS.
Cites
• http://www.mccc.edu/~jenningh/Courses/documents/l
ecture13-teratogens_infancy_attachmentfulltext_000.pdf
• http://www.babies.sutterhealth.org/babygrowth/fetal
dev/bg_fetaldev-1.html
• http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/67/95267004-55C66AFB.jpg
• Psychology textbook
• http://ff.graspnet.com/fetal_development_facts_three
_trimesters.aspx)
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