Prenatal development

development &
PowerPoint by: Monique Johnson
Prenatal development
• The prenatal development consists of three
• First trimester
• Month 1
• Month 2
• Month 3
4 Weeks
the neural tube (which becomes
the brain and spinal cord), the
digestive system, and the heart
and circulatory system begin to
the beginnings of the eyes and ears
are developing
tiny limb buds appear (which will
develop into arms and legs)
the heart is beating
8 Weeks
circulatory, nervous, digestive, and
urinary systems are developed
Becoming more human shaped,
but the head is larger than the body
the mouth is developing tooth
buds (which will become baby
the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears
The main organs are developing
and can hear the baby’s heartbeat.
• After 8 weeks, the embryo is now
referred to as a fetus Although the
fetus is only 1 to 1 1/2 inches long at
this point, all major organs and
systems have been formed.
• the arms and legs are clearly
9-12 weeks
• external genital organs are
• fingernails and toenails appear
• eyelids are formed
• fetal movement increases
• the arms and legs are fully formed
• the voice box (larynx) begins to
form in the trachea
• Even though the organs and body
systems are fully formed by the
end of 12 weeks, the fetus cannot
survive independently.
Prenatal development
• Second trimester
• Month 4
• Month 5
• Month 6
The weight of the fetus will increase
and fetus becomes a baby
At end of second trimester, around
6th month, the fetus will be about 13
to 16 inches long and weighs about 2
to 3 pounds.
The fetus kicks, moves, and can turn
from side to side.
The eyes moved to front of the face
and the ears moved to side of face
The fetus is developing reflexes such
as swallowing and sucking.
The fetus can respond to certain
The placenta is fully developed.
The brain will undergo its most
important period of growth from the
5th month on.
Fingernails on fingers and toes are
grown and the fingers and toes are
fully separated.
The fetus goes through sleep cycle
Skin is wrinkly and red, covered with
soft, downy hair (called lanugo).
Hair is growing on the head of the
Fat begins to form on the fetus.
Eyelids are beginning to open and
the eyebrows and eyelashes are
Fingerprints and toeprints have
Rapid growth is continuing in fetal
size and weight.
Prenatal development
• Third trimester
• Month 7
• Month 8
• Month 9
the fetus continues to grow in size
and weight.
Most babies are born with the irises
of the eyes as slate blue. The
permanent eye color will not appear
until several days or weeks after
The lungs are still maturing
The moves to head-down position.
The fetus can suck its thumb and has
the ability to cry.
The fetus is about 19 to 21 inches long
and weighs, on average, six to nine
By 38 to 40 weeks, the fetus' lanugo
has disappeared almost completely.
The fetus can see and hear.
By 38 to 40 weeks, the lungs have
matured completely.
The brain continues to develop.
The bones of the skull remain soft to
make it easier to pass through the
birth canal.
Newborn reflexes
• Babinski reflex- the toes move when the sole of the
feet is touched
• Moro reflex- the baby moves arms and legs and cry
due to loud noises
• Rooting reflex- the head will move when the cheek is
• Sucking reflex- will automatically happen when a
finger or nipple is in the mouth.
• Grasping reflex- the newborn will grab anything that is
put in their hands.
• The fetus is most vulnerable during the first 12
weeks. During this period of time, all of the
major organs and body systems are forming
and can be damaged if the fetus is exposed to
drugs, German measles, radiation, tobacco,
and chemical and toxic substances.
• The environment has a huge impact on how
the baby is developed due to the substance
called teratogens it can cause birth defects
and death during the prenatal development.
• Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, and etc. can also
have a negative impact on the fetus.
• Alcohol is the most common impact on the
fetus and it causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
• Every year 10,000 children are diagnosed with
• Psychology textbook
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