The Enlightenment in Europe

The Enlightenment in
Chapter 22, Section 2
Thomas Hobbes
All humans were naturally selfish
and wicked, therefore governments
must keep order.
People should hand over their rights
to a strong ruler. This was what
Hobbes called a social contract.
Strong ruler should have total power
(an absolute monarchy).
This powerful government with
awesome power is what he called a
leviathan (sea monster) therefore he
titled his book Leviathan (1651).
John Locke
People were reasonable
(though still selfish) and had
the natural rights to life,
liberty, and property.
Purpose of government is to
protect these natural rights.
Government power comes
from the consent of the
Wrote more than 70 books of
political essays, philosophy,
and drama.
Used satire against his
enemies, especially the
Freedom of religious belief
Freedom of speech
“I do not agree with a word
you say but will defend to the
death your right to say it.”
Believed Britain was the
best-governed and most
politically balanced country
of his own day.
Proposed the “separation
of powers” between
executive, legislative, and
judicial branches of
Proposed “checks and
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
committed to
individual freedom.
Believed man was
born free and good
but easily corrupted.
Believed the only
good government was
the “general will” or
direct democracy.
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
Laws existed to preserve
social order, not avenge
Accused should receive
speedy trials.
Torture should never be used.
Degree of punishment should
match seriousness of crime.
Capital punishment (death
penalty) should be abolished.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Women should be equally
educated along with men.
Women should enter
professions traditionally
dominated by men like
medicine and politics.
Wrote A Vindication of
the Rights of Woman
Mary Shelley
Daughter of Mary
Mistress and later
wife of poet Percy
Bysshe Shelley.
Author of
Frankenstein in the
summer of 1816,
Later published in
Frivolous But Interesting
Climate and the writing of
Frankenstein (continued)
Illustration from the 1831 edition.
The Shelley’s (Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin calling
herself Mary Shelley though
she is not yet married to
Percy) spend the summer
with Lord Byron at his villa
by Lake Geneva in
The weather being too cold
to carry out normal summer
activities, the group reside
indoors staying up all night
in intellectual discussions.
They often sit around the fire
reading German ghost
Climate and the writing of
Frankenstein (continued)
Lord Byron suggests that
to entertain themselves
indoors each of them
write his or her own
supernatural tale.
During this time Mary
Godwin conceived of the
idea for Frankenstein.
Therefore, being shut in
due to the weather
caused by a volcanic
winter brought about the
occasion of the writing of
this famous novel.
Boris Karloff as the Monster in