Chapter 27

Changing Economic and Social
Key Questions
• A. What economic goals have Middle Eastern
nations pursued?
• 1.Reduce European economic influence
turned to socialism – government control of
the economy. Nationalized foreign
controlled businesses( banking, oil)
• B. How have Middle eastern Nations improved
their agriculture?
• 1. desalination – convert salt water into fresh
water for drinking an dirrigation.
• 2. fertigation – pump water and fertilizer directly
to the roots of plants.
• Better seeds and machines for planting and
• Gave land to poor people to increase production
and decrease rural poverty.
• C. How has oil affected Middle eastern
• 1. Oil-rich nations give money and loans to
poorer neighbors.
• Oil-producing countries provide millions of
jobs to workers from other countries.
• D. What are some effects of rapid population
growth and urbanization?
• 1. urbanization – movement of people from
the country to the city.
• 2. crowded neighborhoods
• 3. scarce jobs
• 4. Education and attitudes of children can
create conflict with older people.
Three Nations on the Road to
• A. What were the causes of the Islamic
revolution in Iran?
• 1. Income gap between the westernized
middle and upper classes and the rest of the
• 2. Anger over increased dependence on the
• 1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini reutrned
from exile in France to lead the revolution.
• Created a theocracy – nation ruled by religious
• Made Koran basis of all law.
• Enforced strict Muslim traditions
• Banned western music and movies
• Held 52 American citizens hostage for over a year
• What economic policies have egyptian leaders
• 1.promotes Arab Socialism
• 2. Nationalized industries and businesses
• 3. Took control of the Suez Canal
• 4. Built the Aswan High dam – low cost power
for factories and homes.
• How has Turkey progressed toward
• 1. Ataturk, Turkey’s first president began the
• 2. Turkey became a secular state (government
not controlled by religious leaders)
• 3. Developed agriculture by using new farming
• 4. Developed manufacturing
• 5. Built dams to provide hydroelectric power.