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风力发电接入电网技术标准制定的经验
Chinese experience in development of grid code
for wind power interconnection
中国电力科学研究院
Renewable Energy Department of CEPRI
迟永宁
Dr. CHI Yongning
Disclaimer:
The views expressed in this document are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of
Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this document, and accept no responsibility for any consequence
of their use. By making any designation or reference to a particular territory or geographical area, or by using the term “country” in this document, ADB does not intend to
make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
1
1
我国风电的发展及并网挑战
2
风力发电并网国家标准
3
风力发电并网的关键技术应用与实践
Development & Challenges of Large Scale Wind Power
Grid Code for Wind Power Grid Connection
Application of Key Technologies and Practice in China
1.1 风力发电的发展现状及规划
Development of Large Scale Wind Power
2012年,我国的风电累计装机达到7532千瓦,总量占世界首位。发电量
100.8TWh, 占全国总发电量的2%。

In 2012, the cumulative wind power capacity in China reached 75.32GW (
ranking 1st in the world). The electricity generated by wind in 2012 is
100.8TWh, accounting for 2.0% of the total electricity.
115.01%
103.04%
80000
130.51%
68.25%
36.08%
70000
73.35%
105.22%
39.41%
21.97%
20.78%
60000
71.36% 平均年增长率
MW
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
Newly installed capacity
数据来源: CWEA
2007
2008
2009
2010
Cumulative installed capacity
2011
2012
1.1 风力发电的发展现状及规划
Development of Large Scale Wind Power

我国规划了八个大型千万千瓦风电基地
8 large wind-power bases are in plan, each of them is with capacity larger than
10GW.

Jilin
Hami
Western Inner
Mongolia
Jiuquan
Eastern Inner
Mongolia
Hebei
Shandong
Jiangsu
根据发改委能源研究所做
的 2050 中 国 风 力 发 电 发
展 路 线 图 的 研 究 , 2050
年我国风电装机将达到
1000GW。
According to the report
“Wind
Roadmap
2050,
China” issued by Energy
Research Institute (ERI) of
NDRC, the planned total
installed capacity of wind
power will reach 1000 GW.
4
1.2 大规模风电并网的技术挑战
Challenges of Large Scale Wind Power Grid Connection
无功电压
系统调频调峰
Reactive power & voltage
control
Power balance
& frequency
control
系统稳定性
Transient stability
电源与输电规划
Generation and
transmission planning
风电并网
Wind power
潮流与短路
Load flow and shortcircuit
电能质量
Power quality
5
1.3 风电并网后系统调峰面临的挑战
Impacts on power balance & frequency control
50.0Hz
50.2
49.8
电源Power source
负荷Load
电力系统的有功需实时平衡
More difficulties to power balance
常规电源
Conventional Power
火电机组内按调度指令运行
Thermal power follow with
the load according to the
dispatch command
电 网
Power Grid
用电负荷
Load
风力发电
Wind power
日负荷规律性强
Regular daily load
风电出力随机变化,波动性较大
Irregular wind power output with
big variation
6
1.3 风电并网后系统调峰面临的挑战
Impacts on power balance & frequency control

等效负荷概念:将风电场出力作为负的负荷叠加
到负荷上,得到的等效负荷曲线。
Net load = Load – Wind
look the wind power output as a minus load
风电注入导致等效负
荷更大的峰谷差
Big differences between
peak and off-peak net
load
14000
负荷
功率(kW)
12000
10000
8000
6000
等效负荷
4000
2000
风电
0
1
9
17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129 137 145 153 161
时间(h)
7
1.3 风电并网后系统调峰面临的挑战
Impacts on power balance & frequency control
冬季

夏季
冬季--有供热的需求,热电联产机组占据了出力的很大一部分。传统
火电机组承担了大部分调峰任务。弃风百分比为1.6%;
Winter season--with less flexibility because operating CHP unit used for heat supply, wind
curtailment 1.6%.

夏季--没有供热的需求,传统机组有很大的空间进行调峰,没有发生
弃风现象。
Summer season—with many flexibility because operating CHP share very small, no wind power
curtailment.
8
1.4 风电并网对系统无功电压的影响
Impacts on reactive power and voltage control
风电并网电压稳定问题
依靠风电场控制改变其注入电网无功功率,从而
控制电网(风场)电压。
Control voltage by regulating the reactive
power fed into grid
Voltage stability of wind
power grid integration
无穷大系统
Pg
Qg
S1=P1+jQ1
ΔQL
ΔPR
S2=P2+jQ2
Z=R+jX
U1 
Qgc
QC/2
U 2 0
QC/2
U1  U
2

P2 R  Q 2 X
U
1.10
1.05
1.08
1.04
2
DIg S IL E N T

中电投建华风电场
300MW
LGJ-400/22km
北清河风电场300MW
LGJ-400/18km
华能建华风电场
300MW
LGJ-400/68km
乌力吉木仁
风电场300MW
LGJ-400/31km
义和塔拉西
风电场300MW
小街基风电场300MW
LGJ-400/30km
LGJ-400/35km
1.03
1.04
LGJ-4×40
开鲁北
义和塔拉东
风电场300MW
1.06
至阿拉坦
1.02
0/80km
太平沼风电场
300MW
LGJ-400/27km
1.02
科尔沁变
1.01
LGJ-400/34km
1.00
0
x-Axis:
至沙岭
LGJ-6×300/200km
500kV输电线路
例
00k
m
LGJ-4×
4×
630
/1
500kV变电站
LGJ
-
图
风电场
220kV输电线路
辽中变
500
1000
·çµç»ùµØ³öÁ¦: MW
1500
2000
2500
0
x-Axis:
500
1000
·çµç»ùµØ³öÁ¦: MW
1500
2000
2500
¿Æ¶ûÇß500kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
¿ªÂ³±±500kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
ɳÁë500kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
¿ªÂ³±±±ä220kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
ÐÂÃñ±ä500kV: µçѹ(pu)
¿ªÂ³±±35kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
°¢À-̹±ä500kVĸÏß: µçѹ(pu)
630/68km
新民变
沈北变
9
1.5 风电并网对系统稳定性的影响
Impacts on transient stability
P E /M W
200
100
0
系统发生故障后的动态电压崩溃
Dynamic voltage collapse
after system fault
-100
ωr
1 .3
1 .2
1 .1
1 .0
U
Q /M V ar
150
75
0
-7 5
-150
1 .0
0 .8
0 .6
0 .4
0 .2

1 .0
0 .5
β
0 .0
Wind farm capacity: 150 MW,
Three-phase short-circuit fault,
Duration: 0.1s
- 0 .5
- 1 .0
PM
150MW风电场,三 相短路故
障,持续 0.1s。
1 .0 8
1 .0 6
1 .0 4
1 .0 2
1 .0 0
0 .9 8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
t/s
10
1.5 风电并网对系统稳定性的影响
Impacts on transient stability
2008年以来风电主要事故
Wind power outage accidents since 2008
内蒙古地区
张家口地区

大量风电机组和光伏
逆变器未经检测并入
电网,由于不具备低
电压穿越能力、电网
适应性差,发生了多
起大面积脱网事故。
Frequently
large-scale
wind
power
outage
accidents
2011年4月,佳鑫风电场
内故障,造成张家口地区
风电机组脱网644台。
2010年,风电机组
无法耐受自身产生的
谐波,大范围跳闸。
吉林地区
内蒙古
2010年,500kV合
松线故障导致大量风
电机组切除,风电出
力骤降70万千瓦。
山东地区
酒泉风电基地
2011年发生3次大规
模风电脱网事故;最
严重一次造成风电机
组脱网1278台。
河南地区
风电机组的电网适应
性不足,电网正常运
行时风电机组经常跳
机。
2009年,电铁引起电网
三相电压不平衡度增加,
导致风电机组脱网。
11
1.5 风电并网对系统稳定性的影响
Impacts on transient stability
故障地点:甘肃酒泉风电

Fault location: Gansu Jiuquan.
乌北
1226台 1545MW
781.17kV
357.61kV
131.28MW
W
瓜州
干西第二
风电场 干西第三
风电场
714.79MW
W
干东变
380.56kV
酒钢变
W
热电三厂
2×300 .79M
8
11
酒泉
705MW
W
嘉峪关
MW
.51
114 MW
9
107.1
50.034Hz
张掖
山丹
4 MW
115.0
800.1kV
干东第一 干东第二 干东第三
风电场
风电场
风电场
628台
张掖电厂
2×300
130.28MW
M
M
728.77MW
.2
4M
楼兰
干西第一
风电场
巴州
378.17kV 7.90MW
干西变 17
78
.2
M
197.98MW
天光电厂
玉门
808.54kV
敦煌378.25kV 128.17MW
W
789.32kV
桥东变
W
361.99MW
12
3
吐鲁番
380.0kV
55
.8
9
373.63MW
840MW
昌马西
桥西变
18
3.
86
373.63MW
367.32MW
598台
18
4.
19
M
514.74MW
109.31MW
哈密
506.59MW
桥西第一 桥西第二 桥西第三
风电场
风电场
风电场
桥东第一 桥东第二 桥东第三
799.68kV
风电场
风电场
风电场
39.38MW
金昌 36.84
49.854Hz
东大滩
923.67MW 40.46MW
36.17
40.16
923.37MW
38.26
7
57.
250.45MW
656.24MW
武胜
780.26kV
古浪
W
2×330
M
W
57M657.7MW
23
.
181
W
4M
3.9
W
9.
11
金昌电厂
33M
11
786.9kV 河西
.
191
双湾
57.7
241.68MW 凉州
W
2M
3
25.
21.
3M
W
12
1
我国风电的发展及并网挑战
2
风力发电并网国家标准
3
风力发电并网的关键技术应用与实践
Development & Challenges of Large Scale Wind Power
Grid Code for Wind Power Grid Connection
Application of Key Technologies and Practice in China
2.1 风电并网标准
Grid Code for Wind Power Connection

根据中国风电发展的现状及并网运行的具体
问题,在以下几个方面进行了修订
Main aspects:

风电功率预测
Wind power forecast

有功功率及其控制
Active power control

无功功率容量范围
Q capacity

电压控制
Voltage control

低电压穿越能力
LVRT

风电场接入电网测试 Grid compliance test
14
2.2 风电场有功控制要求
Active power control of wind farm

风电场应配置有功功率控制系统,具备有功功率调节能力。
The wind farm should equipped with active power control system.

场内所有运行机组应能够实现有功功率的连续平滑调节,并能够参与
系统有功功率控制。
The running wind turbines should be capable of a continuous smooth
adjustment of the active power, and participating in active power control.

风电场应能够接收并自动执行电力系统调度机构下达的有功功率及有
功功率变化的控制指令,风电场有功功率及有功功率变化应与电力系
统调度机构下达的给定值一致。
Wind farms should be able to receive and automatically perform control
instructions of active power set by the power system operator.
15
2.3 风电场功率预测要求
Power forecast requirement of wind farm

风电场应配置风电功率预测系统,系统具有0~72h短期风电功率预测以
及15min~4h超短期风电功率预测功能。
The wind power forecast system should be installed in wind farm and the system
should have the function of 0~72h short-term wind power forecast and 15min~4h
ultra-short-term wind power forecast.

风电场每天按照电力系统调度机构规定的时间上报次日0~24时风电场
发电功率预测曲线,风电场每15min自动向电力系统调度机构滚动上报
未来15min~4h的风电场发电功率预测曲线,预测值的时间分辨率为
15min。
Wind farms daily report the wind power forecast curve of the next day 0 ~ 24
hour, Wind farms automatically report wind power forecast curve of the next
15min ~ 4h to the power system operator each 15min , the time resolution should
be 15min.
16
2.4 风电场无功容量
Reactive power capacity of wind farm
电网
Power grid

无功
补偿
VAR
无功
补偿
VAR
普通风电场应补偿场内全部及送出线路的一半的无功损耗,风
电基地的风电场应补偿场内及送出线路全部无功损耗。
Wind farm should have required reactive power capacity
to compensate the reactive power losses locally.
无功
补偿
VAR
风电场
Wind farm
集中无功补偿设备
必要时动态
风电场主变
有载调压
并网点电压
V Control
of POI
-3%~+7%
风电机组无功能力
超前0.95~滞后0.95
17
2.5 风电场低电压穿越要求
LVRT requirement of wind farm

基本要求
General requirements

有功恢复
Active power restore
电力系统故障期间没有切出的风电场,以至少
10%PN/s的功率变化率恢复至故障前的值。

动态无功支撑能力
Dynamic reactive power capability
•
•
百万千瓦级规模及以上的风电场群,三相短路
故障,动态无功电流要求:
响应时间≤ 75ms,持续时间应≥ 550ms。
IT≥1.5×(0.9-UT)IN ,(0.2≤UT≤0.9)
18
1
我国风电的发展及并网挑战
2
风力发电并网国家标准
3
风力发电并网的关键技术应用与实践
Development & Challenges of Large Scale Wind Power
Grid Code for Wind Power Grid Connection
Application of Key Technologies and Practice in China
3.1 仿真分析
Simulation and Analysis

完成12个省及地区风电、光伏发电接纳能力研究。
More than 12 provinces and regions wind power, PV accommodation ability study.

完成了黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、青海、甘肃、海南、云南、广东电
网内共超过300个风电场及光伏电站的接入系统研究。
More than 300 grid integration studies on wind farms and PV power stations.
20
3.2 功率预测
Power Forecasting

拥有计算核6560个、存储容量376TB,在2011年中国高性能计算机TOP100排名
中以每秒53万亿次运算速度位列第41位(电力行业排名第一)。可在2.5小时内完
成东北、西北、华北等主要风能开发区域网格分辨率为5×5千米的96小时数值天
气预报。
With 6560 CPU, storage capacity 376 TB, ranking at 41 in 2011 China‘s highperformance computer TOP100 with a speed of 53 trillion times per second. 96
hours 5 * 5 km grid resolution numerical weather prediction of northeast,
northwest, north China and other major wind power development area can be
finished within 2.5 hours.
21
3.2 功率预测
Power Forecasting

在辽宁、吉林、江苏、山东等网省调共建立16套风电/
光伏功率预测系统;覆盖近400个风电场/光伏电站,
总装机容量超过4000万千瓦,预测规模世界首位;平
均绝对误差10%左右。
16 wind power/PV prediction systems, covering nearly
400 wind/PV power stations, the total capacity more than
40 GW, the average absolute error is about 10%。
22
3.3 检测认证
Testing and Certification

占地面积24.6平方公里,
30台风电机组测试机位。
National Wind Power
Testing
Center
in
Zhangbei
County,
Hebei Province. 24.6
km*km, 30 wind turbine
generalized foundation.

世界上规模最大、唯一具备检测风电机组全部整机性能(7类82个参数)的试验基地
It is the largest test center having the capability of testing all the performances
of wind turbines (7 classes and 82 parameters) in the world.
23
3.4 优化调度
Optimal dispatching technology
新能源优化调度系统 RE optimization scheduling system

开发了具有自主知识产权的新能源优化调度系统,可实现七天滚动机组组
合优化启停安排、新能源和常规电源协调调度、新能源优化控制。
Developed RE optimization scheduling system with independent intellectual property
rights, which can realize rolling unit commitment optimization for seven days, RE and
conventional power coordination scheduling, RE optimization control.
24
3.5 风光储输示范工程—中国张北
Demonstration Project of Wind, PV, Energy Storage and Transmission


规划总容量为:风电500MW,光伏发电100MW,储能装置110MW。
一期工程建设风电100MW、光伏发电40MW和储能装置20MW,于2011年12
月31日建成投产。
The planning capability: 500MW wind turbine, 100MW solar modules,
110MW energy storage equipment.
The first phase of the project construct 100MW wind turbine, 40MW solar
modules, 20MW energy storage equipment.
3.5 风光储输示范工程—中国张北
Demonstration Project of Wind, PV, Energy Storage and Transmission
Cogeneration Intelligent Optimization Control
System
According to forecast for both light radiation and
wind speed, the system can detect and intelligent
optimize the wind farms, solar power plants,
energy storage systems and substations.
Furthermore, it can automatic configure and
seamless switch from each operation modes.
谢 谢
Thanks!
迟永宁
[email protected]
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