Pests and Predators by Ellen Miller

Pests and Predators
The Not-So-Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Predators and Pests
What We Will Cover
Mites: Tracheal and Varroa
Small Hive Beetle
Wax Moths
Ants, Spiders, Earwigs
Wasps, Hornets, Yellow Jackets
Skunks, Raccoons, Badgers, Bears
Domestic Livestock and Not-So-Domestic
Predators and Pests
• Mites: Began to be a significant problem in the mid
1980’s with 50%-80% losses in the North East in
– Tracheal mites (Acampis woodi)
• Microscopic in size, numerous
enough to impede respiration
• See bees crawling on ground in front of hive
• Biggest problem in Fall decreasing the life span of the Winter
• Treatment: Menthol and formic acid (Mite-Away II)
– temperature dependant (50-79 degrees); most effective 60-75 degrees
– can’t use when honey supers are on
– grease patties may stop the transfer of mites from one bee to another
(6c sugar mixed with 3 c hydrogenated vegetable shortening – Crisco)
divided into 10 patties, 1 per hive
Varroa mites (Varroa destructor): Originally found on the
eastern hive bee of Asia which had adapted to the mite and
enjoyed a host/parasite relationship. Transferred to the
honey bee which did not have a defense to this parasite
resulting in killing majority of feral hives in US
Oval reddish brown mite lives on the outside of the adult bee and larva and are visible
Detection: Mite board inserted under the screened bottom board or ether roll
– Apistan; Mite-Away II; Sucrocide; Apiguard; Api Life Var; Hivastan; Check Mite (illegal to
harvest honey) Mites have developed resistance to Apistan
– Soft chemicals such as Formic Acid, Thymol, Sucrose octanoate can be sprayed on bees;
treats tracheal mites; Eucalyptus essential oil
– Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Natural method
• Drone comb
• Screened bottom boards
• Split (no brood)
Predators and Pests cont.
Small Hive Beetle (Aethina tumida)
• Discovered in southern US in 1996.
• Adult has six legs, two pair of wings, reddish brown/black, ¼” long;
feed off of pollen on solid bottom boards
• Larvae are cream; 1/16”; when mature they burrow into the ground
under the hive
• Treatment: Usually not necessary in this
Relocate hive
Freezing temps
Predators and
Pests cont.
• Wax Moths -- Don’t attack bees directly
– Larvae feed on combs (pollen, brood)
– Healthy hive will take care of them
– Abandoned or improperly stored frames
Predators and Pests cont.
• Ants
– Placement of hive away from established nest
– Vaseline, ashes, diatomaceous earth, cinnamon
• Spiders
– Ghost spider predates on field bees
• Earwigs
Predators and Pests cont.
• Wasps, Hornets, Yellow Jackets
– Will take over a weak hive
– Trap queens in early spring (March)
– Can fly in colder temperature
– Hang traps near hive
Predators and Pests cont.
Mice – restrict opening
Skunks and Raccoons – keep hive off ground, secure hive bodies
Badgers – secure hive bodies
Bears – 7’ tall heavy duty electrified fence
Predators and Pests cont.
Domestic livestock
– Poultry
– Cows, Horses, etc.
Not domesticated!
Predators and Pests
The Not-So-Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Pests and Predators
Treatment and/or deterrent
IPM – Integrated Pest Management
Healthy, strong hives