The Treaty negotiations, October-December, 1921

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Leaving Certificate History
The Treaty negotiations, October-December
1921:
helping students to think critically
http://pdst.ie/postprimary
Helping students to think critically
• Increasing focus on students’ ability to think
critically
• The enquiry-focused approach: rationale
• Card-sorting and critical skills (Booklet, pages
43-48)
The enquiry-focused approach
Aims
• To give a clear focus to a series of lessons
• To clarify for all concerned what the learning
purposes are
• To ensure that the sequence of lessons is
leading to improved understanding on the
part of the students
Case study: contextual overview
• ‘War of independence’: different designations,
perceptions of IRA
• June 1921: both sides’ interest in peace moves
• July-September: London talks → exchange of letters
→ proposals for London conference, formula agreed?
• Irish delegation: members, de Valera’s absence,
delegates’ status, case to be argued
• British delegation, venue, duration of conference
• Boundary commission proposals, signing of Articles
of Agreement, resulting divisions
A glossary of terms
• Developing students’ historical literacy
• Key terms: Articles of Agreement, boundary
commission, British Commonwealth,
dominion status, envoys plenipotentiary,
external association, fiscal autonomy,
Government of Ireland Act 1920, oath of
allegiance, reprisals
Timeline
•
•
•
•
Government of Ireland, 1920
1921, May/June: background to truce
July: truce, de Valera in London
August-September: Lloyd George-de Valera
correspondence
• October-December: developments in talks
• 6th December and following: signing of Articles
of Agreement and subsequent divisions
Biographical notes
• Irish delegates (leaders?)
• Irish secretaries (Childers, Chartres)
• British delegates (leaders?)
• British secretaries (Jones, Curtis)
• Other key figures
Useful websites
• http://treaty.nationalarchives.ie/
• http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/The_Treaty_Negotiat
ions_October-December_1921/
• http://www.askaboutireland.ie/readingroom/digital-book-collection/digital-books-bysubject/history-of-ireland/pakenham-peaceby-ordeal/
• www.hist.ie
The Treaty negotiations, OctoberDecember, 1921
• An enquiry: What happened between July and
December 1921 that led to major political
division in Ireland?
• Rationale for this?
• Steps into which the enquiry can be broken
The Treaty negotiations, OctoberDecember, 1921
Introduction to the enquiry
• King’s speech
• Significance of Northern settlement?
• Possible hook:
http://treaty.nationalarchives.ie/documentgallery/treaty-newsreel/
Enquiry, Step 1
• What happened between July and October,
1921, that led to the Treaty negotiations
which took place between October and
December?
• Potential benefits of using this question to
focus on the subject matter of the case study?
What happened between July and
Oct. 1921 ...?
• Lloyd George’s invitation to de Valera to
attend a conference (Source 1A)
• De Valera’s responses
• Truce
• De Valera’s acceptance of invitation (Source
1B)
What happened between July and
Oct. 1921 ...?
David Low, The Star, 12th July 1921 © Express Syndication
What happened between July and
Oct. 1921 ...?
• De Valera, Lloyd George meet in London: what Lloyd
George offered
• De Valera’s responses (Sources 1D, 1E)
• Lloyd George’s ‘fresh’ invitation of 29th September
(Source 1G)
• De Valera’s acceptance (Source 1H)
What happened between July and
Oct. 1921 ...?
• Delegated appointed
• Plenipotentiary status
• Instructions given (Source 1I)
• Envisaged elements of settlement
The delegates in London
http://multitext.ucc.ie/viewgallery/1205?slideshow=18
Enquiry, Step 2
• What are the main issues that arose in and
around the Treaty negotiations?
• Potential benefits of using this question to
focus on the subject matter of the case study?
What are the main issues that arose...
between October and December?
• Significant developments
• Commentary
• Associated sources
What are the main issues that arose...
between October and December?
• Griffith’s initial impressions (Source 2A)
• Childers to de Valera, 21st October, re. strategy
on issue of Crown (Source 2B)
• Griffith and Collins discussions with Lloyd
George and Chamberlain on issues of Crown
and essential unity (Source 2C)
What are the main issues that arose ...
between October and December?
• Griffith discussion with Lloyd George, 2nd
November (Source 2D)
• Griffith letter to de Valera re. boundary
commission proposal, 12th November (Source
2E); nature of undertaking given to Lloyd
George?
What are the main issues that arose ...
between October and December?
• Irish memorandum of 22nd November and
British response to it (Source 2F)
• Griffith letter to de Valera re. Chequers
meeting with Lloyd George, 28th November
(Source 2G); exchange on issue of Crown
Enquiry, Step 3
• What were the circumstances in which the
Articles of Agreement for a Treaty were signed
in the early hours of 6th December?
• Potential benefits of using this question to
focus on the subject matter of the case study?
What were the circumstances in which
the Articles of Agreement were signed...?
• Significant developments
• Related sources
What were the circumstances in which
the Articles of Agreement were signed...?
• Interview between Collins and Lloyd George
(Source 3A): Collins’ thoughts on boundary
commission
• Final sub-conferences (Source 3B): Lloyd
George’s use of Griffith ‘letter’; concession on
trade?; threat of war?
Source 3C
David Low, The Star , 7th December 1921 © Express Syndication
Source 3D
David Low, The Star , 9th December 1921 © Express Syndication
Enquiry, Step 4
• What divisions emerged in Ireland in
December, 1921, following the signing of the
Treaty?
• Potential benefits of using this question to
focus on the subject matter of the case study?
What divisions emerged... following
the signing of the Treaty?
• Significant developments
• Related sources
What divisions emerged... following
the signing of the Treaty?
• Delegates summoned to cabinet meeting on
8th December (Source 4A): Desmond
Fitzgerald’s surprise at de Valera’s response
• Austin Stack’s recollection of cabinet meeting
(Source 4B)
• C.S. Andrews’ recollection of IRA response
(Source 4C)
• De Valera’s letter to the press (Source 4D)
What divisions emerged ... following
the signing of the Treaty?
• Extracts from Dáil debates on Treaty (Sources
4E, 4F, 4G, 4H, 4I, 4J, 4K, 4L)
• Questions to help students interrogate the
sources (Booklet, p.49)
The Treaty negotiations: Aftermath
Attributed to
Constance de
Markiewicz
Courtesy of
The National
Library of
Ireland
Courtesy of
The
National
Library of
Ireland
The Treaty negotiations, OctoberDecember, 1921
• Card sorting and critical skills
• Supplementary cards
• Use of cards to facilitate categorisation of
arguments for and against Treaty
Group activity
Critical skills exercise
The Treaty negotiations, OctoberDecember, 1921
• Historians’ views (Secondary sources A-E)
• Interrogating the historians
What happened between July and
December 1921 that led to major
political division in Ireland?
Your conclusions on the enquiry
Booklet
p. 50
http://pdst.ie/postprimary
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