Transfer of data in ICT systems

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Transfer of data
in ICT systems
Using ICT networks
© Folens 2008
Basic elements of an ICT
network
There are four basic elements of an ICT network.
These are:
• communication devices
• network software
• data transfer media
• network standards and procedures
© Folens 2008
Communication devices
A network interface card:
• prepares data for sending
over the network
• sends the data
• controls the flow of data
from the computer terminal
to the transmission medium
© Folens 2008
Communication devices
A hub:
• is used to join computers in
a network
• allows the connection of
cables
• allows the sharing of files
and Internet access
© Folens 2008
Communication devices
A switch:
• is a similar device to a hub
but more intelligent
• can look at a packet of data
to decide where it should go
• reduces the number of
packets of data on a
network, which speeds the
network up
© Folens 2008
Communication devices
A router:
• can be wired or wireless
• is used to join several
networks together
• is often used to connect
several computers in the
home to the Internet
© Folens 2008
Networking software
Network software consists of:
• network operating systems – specialist operating
systems designed specifically for networks
• network management software – used to help a
network manager run a network by keeping track of
software, keeping software up-to-date, installing
software security patches, helping to manage the helpdesk, etc.
© Folens 2008
Data transmission
medium
The medium/method by
which the data is transmitted
in a network can be:
• metal wire
• fibre optic cable
• wireless
© Folens 2008
Standards and
protocols
• communication software
manages the flow of data across
the medium
• it also establishes certain rules,
called protocols, by which
computers can communicate
• standards are needed so that all
network devices work in a
similar way
© Folens 2008
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