The Early Years 1776-1777 The Opposing Sides • Objectives: • Why some Americans supported the British. • What were the strengths of both sides? • What were the weaknesses of both sides? Opposing Sides Americans (Patriots) • Patriots were the Americans who wanted independence. • • • • • British & Loyalists Loyalists were Americans who wanted to remain loyal to the King. Religious reasons. Economic reasons Fear of anarchy Did not see any issues. African Americans At least 5,000 African Americans fought on the Patriots side during the war. It is estimated nearly 20,000 served in the British army in some capacity. Notable African American Soldiers Peter Salem Lemuel Hayes Advantages Patriots • Fighting on home ground. • Fighting for freedom • George Washington was their leader. • • • • British Superior Navy Experienced, Well trained army Wealth of Empire Population Disadvantages • • • • • Patriots Not all supported war. Lack of army/navy. Lack military experience. Lack of weapons and ammunition. Militias British • British fighting far from home. • British cause for fighting. • Hessians: cause was money Raising an Army In the beginning, the Continental Congress refused to give Washington a 40,000 man army. Instead a small regular army supported by state militias. That would soon prove a disaster. Women in the Army Margaret Corbin Deborah Sampson Molly Pitcher Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley distinguished herself at the Battle of Monmouth. Self Check • Can you name three reasons loyalists felt the way they did? • Which side had the edge in military strength? • What were those advantages? • Which side had the better reasons for fighting? • What were those reasons? Campaign for New York • Objectives • Why New York such a strategic location. • How the battles around New reflect the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. New York New York, mouth of the Hudson River. Ice free year round. Split the population of America in half. British felt if they could split the colonies, use a naval blockade. It would stop trade, troop movements, they could crush New England which they felt was the core of the rebellion. British Invasion Force William Howe Richard Howe Battle of Long Island William Howe’s 9,000 men met his brother, Richard Howe and his 23,000 men in New York. They went ashore on Long Island and soundly defeated Washington’s army.. The war could have ended if not for the actions of John Glover. His men did a night evacuation of Washington’s army to Manhattan. Harlem Heights Washington’s army was driven from his position. During the retreat the British bugled “gone away” which is used in fox hunts meaning the fox is in full flight. This spurred the Americans to make there best showing of the war to date, resulting in the battle being considered a draw. American Outlook After New York The Continental Army had been totally outclassed by Great Britain’s military. Howe settled in and occupied New York while Washington retreated into Pennsylvania. At years end , the one year enlistments for the soldiers would be up. Washington needed a victory somehow. Self Check • What role did the strengths of the British military play in the campaign for New York? Patriot Gains • Objectives • How the Americans gain victory at Trenton and Princeton. • How these victories helped the American cause. Battle of Trenton Christmas night, 1776 Washington’s army crosses the Delaware River and attacks the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey. Caught by surprise, the Hessians are defeated. Battle of Princeton British send General Cornwallis to take care of Washington. He thinks he has Washington trapped, but he escapes and defeats British cavalry on January 3, 1777, at Trenton. Washington retreats onto Pennsylvania mountains for winter. Valcour Bay October 11, 1776, American naval forces led by Benedict Arnold meet and stop the southern advance of British army from Canada. This prevents British from controlling the northern end of the Hudson River. Self Check • What were the effects of the American victories at Trenton, Princeton, and Valcour Bay? A British Plan for Victory • Objectives • How the British planned to end the war in 1777. • How the plan fell apart. • How the American victory at Saratoga changed history. John Burgoyne’s Plan The separate British armies would launch attacks: Barry St. Leger through Mohawk Valley. William Howe from New York. John Burgoyne from Canada. All would meet near Albany, NY, crush any resistance, split the colonies. Barry St. Leger Lands at Fort Oswego, begins marching east through the Mohawk Valley. He reaches Fort Stanwix, the last obstacle on the road to Albany. There he meets unexpected opposition. Word arrives that American reinforcements are on the way. Oriskany A group of Tories and Mohawk Indians led by Chief Joseph Brandt ambush the Americans at Oriskany. Nickolas Herkimer Herkimer is badly wounded in leg. Has men prop him against a tree. Herkimer will die as a result of improper medical care Benedict Arnold After the battle, word spread amongst the Indian camps that Benedict Arnold was approaching with an army. This caused the Indians to desert their British allies. Without Indian help, St. Leger decided to go no further and he retreated to Fort Oswego. William Howe Before Howe would march north, he decided he would capture Philadelphia first. He defeated Washington at Brandywine and Germantown. However this took him until October which was too late in the season to help Burgoyne’s plan. John Burgoyne Believing his plan would be followed by St. Leger and Howe, Burgoyne set out from Canada with 9,000 men, 30 personal carts of supplies, and a mistress. Fort Ticonderoga First obstacle for Burgoyne was Fort Ticonderoga. He was able to easily capture the fort, but nearly 1,000 Americans were able to escape. Bennington Running low on supplies Burgoyne sent 1,000 Hessians to raid the town of Bennington VT. The John Stark and Vermont Militia destroyed the raiding party. Saratoga Despite the setback at Bennington, St. Leger’s retreat, Howe being in Philadelphia. Burgoyne continued his advance on Albany. Horatio Gates American commanding general, Horatio Gates had his men in good defensive ground at Bemis Heights, waiting for Burgoyne. Daniel Morgan Throughout the ensuing battles, Morgan’s rifleman using guerilla tactics took out key British personnel. Benedict Arnold The battle was decided when Benedict Arnold, without orders, led an assault that captured a key British position. During the fighting, Arnold was wounded in the same leg as he was at Quebec. Victory for America On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered his entire army of over 6,000 men. Benjamin Franklin In France, Franklin represented America in trying to persuade France to help America’s cause. Self Check • What went wrong with Burgoyne’s plan of conquest? • How do you think the Americans victory at Saratoga will effect the future of the war?