unit animal kingdom part 2

 4 characteristics
1. Notochord
2. post-anal tail
3. pharyngeal gill slits
4. dorsal hollow nerve cord
 Notochord: In most skeletons a complex
jointed skeleton develops and the
notocord is retained in adults at the
gelatinous material of discs between the
 dorsal hollow nerve cord: The brain and
spinal cord develop from this.
Chordate Characteristics
Includes 3 Subphyla:
Sea Squirts
• sponge like - filter feeder
•Most are sessile marine
animals which adhere to
•Only have the pharyngeal
gill slits ( lack the other 3)
chordate traits
• Lancets (a primitive fish like organism) closely resembles
the idealized chordate.
– The notochord, dorsal nerve cord, numerous gill slits,
and post-anal tail all persist in the adult
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Have a Backbone
(Chordate Coelomate Deuterostomes)
1. About 45,000 extant species of vertebrates
are in subphylum Vertebrata.
2. Vertebrates have all four chordate
characteristics sometime during their lives.
Subphylum Vertebrata (backbone/vertebrae)
Superclass Agnatha (jawless fishes – lampreys, etc.)
Superclass Gnathostomates (jawed animals)
Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes sharks)
Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes)
Class Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, newts)
Class Reptilia (lizards, snakes, turtles, gators)
Class Aves (birds)
Class Mammalia
Jawless fish are agnathans;
63 species belong to superclass Agnatha.
Lampreys and hagfish are modern jawless fishes; they lack a bony
They have smooth non-scaly skin; have cylindrical bodies, and are up
to a meter long.
Many lampreys are filter feeders; others are parasitic with a round
muscular mouth called a buccal cavity equipped with
teeth to attach themselves to fish and suck nutrients from the host's
circulatory system.
Sea Lamprey – Jawless fish
Placoderms are extinct
jawed fishes.
They were armored with
heavy plates and had strong
Small, jawless, and fin-less
ostracoderms are extinct
vertebrate (fossils).
 They were filter feeders
also able to move water
through their gills by
muscular action.
Fish (Osteichthyes: bony fish,
Chondrichthyes: cartilage fish)
About 3,900 species
 Are
cold-blooded vertebrate
 Lay their eggs in water
 Lack any skin coverings such as
fur, scales or feathers
 Young
amphibians tend to resemble
small fish.
 Amphibian means "two lives," a reference
to the change that frogs go through as
they move from egg to tadpole to frog.
 Even as adults, most frogs and other
amphibians must stay close to water.
3 Orders of:Amphibians
 1.
Order Anura: frog and toads
 2. Order Caudata : salamanders,.
 3. Order Gymnophiona: caecilians
Order : Caudata
 Salamanders
& newts have a long
body & tail, & two pair of legs
 Salamanders and newts are
carnivorous, eating insects, snails
 Salamanders walk with a side to side
• Caecilians are legless; burrow in soil
and feed on worms,
• A tongue is used for catching prey, and is attached at the
front of the mouth.
• Eyelids called nicitating membranes keep eyes moist.
• Ears (tympanum) adapted for detecting sound waves.
• larynx produces calls
Brain larger than fishes; cerebral cortex is more developed.
 Amphibians usually have small lungs ( described as 2 simple
air sacs) supplemented by gas exchange across porous
skin…..So frogs have both cutaneous and pulmonary
 Frogs have a closed double-loop circulatory system.
A three-chambered heart (2atria, 1 ventricle) pumps mixed
blood before and after it has gone to the lungs
• Skin is thin, smooth, and non-scaly, and contains
numerous mucous glands; skin plays an active role in
osmotic balance and respiration.
• Amphibians are ectothermic, depending upon external
heat to regulate body temperature.
• If winter temperature drops too low, ectotherms become
inactive and enter torpor
• The cloaca is the structure that both the colon and bladder
empty into
• The structure on the male that resembles the oviduct on the
female is the vestigial oviduct
• The kidneys are positioned retroperitoneal
• There are 2 types of teeth: vomerine and maxillary teeth
• Frogs breath thru positive pressure, no ribs, no diaphragm,
just gulp air and close nare and mouth and force oxygen into
Frogs and toads are tailless as adults;
The hind limbs are specialized for jumping.
 Frogs and toads have head and trunk fused; and do not
have ribs
 Frogs live near fresh water,toads live in damp places
away from water.
 They shed eggs into the water for external fertilization.
Generally, eggs protected by a coat of jelly but not by a
Young hatch into aquatic larvae with gills (tadpoles).
 Larvae usually undergo metamorphosis to develop into
a terrestrial adult.
 20,000 species of bony fishes
 Bony fishes have a bony skeleton;
most are ray-finned with thin, bony rays
supporting fins.
 A few are lobe-finned fishes.
 Fish are covered by scales formed in rings, the rings
are close together in the winter and further apart in the
summer, so can be used to determine age of fish.
 The scales contain the pigment Chromatophores that
create various color pigments.
Mucus cover the fish skin and help to waterproof the
skin ( serves as protection from parasites and reduces
friction as fish moves thru water.
Swim bladder
Is a gas-filled sac whose pressure alters to regulate
buoyancy and depth.
Can be single chambered sac. ex trout
3 chambered bladder ex codfish
Or not present at all ex Tuna
In addition to buoyancy, it can help amplify sound for better
The gills do not open separately and instead are covered
by an operculum
Have a 2 chamber heart: 1 atria, 1 ventricle
Taste buds: fish have taste buds on the external surface of
skins, lips and fins.
Catfish have special barbels that are packed with taste buds
Bottom dwelling/ slow moving
fish have square or rounded
Ex Clown goby
Fast swimming fish have
deeply forked caudal fins
Ex Blue chromis
Nervous system
The chief function of the lateral line is to sense extremely lowfrequency vibrations, as well as to sense the motion of other
nearby fish and prey but in some species it can also detect weak
electrical field (ex catfish and sharks)that detect
Other fish, like the electric eel, can produce their own electricity.
Determining the sex of fish
varies from species to species ranging from super easy to impossible
Some fish are born all males
and the dominant in a pair will
convert to the female ( the
larger of the 2 in a pair)
Others are all born females and
the dominant converts to the
male ( the larger of the 2 in a
Gonopodium in male live bearers such as platies
and mollies
Male Platy
Female platy
Difference between Fresh and salt water fish
In general fresh water fish are more hardier than marine fish,
they must withstand the rapid and dramatic changes in the
water conditions that occur
Most marine fish however are adapted to a constant
environmental conditions
Fresh water fish release large amount of urine, and don’t drink water,
they take in large amount of water by osmosis ( have more salt in
body than surrounding water)
Salt water fish constantly drink water, due to the salt content in sea
water….they must drink equal to 1% body weight each hour or could
dehydrate ) more salt surrounding them than in their body and are
threatened by water loss)
Ex Bettas and Gourami
Have axillary breathing organs (in addition to their gills) called
labyrinth organ
This organ consists of tiny folded membranes located in the head
between gills and helps the fish to live in areas with poor water
Deny them access to water surface and they will drown
Oxygen in H2O
Fish use over 20% of their total energy expenditure just to breath
Water temperature, altitude, time of day, and season can all affect
the amount of oxygen in the water; water holds less oxygen at
warmer temperatures and high altitudes.
DO is measured either in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or "percent
Designated Use Lowest acceptable DO levels
Warm water fish need a minimum of 5(mg/l DO)
Cold water fish need a minimum of 6(mg/l DO) above 7 mg/L
may be required for spawning
As dissolved oxygen levels in water drop below 5 mg/L, aquatic
life is put under stress
Less than 2 (mg/l DO) will not support aquatic life
Do Fish sleep?
Most all fish spend time in an energy-saving
state that can be called "rest", and we might
even call their behavior "sleep", though it is
probably different than "sleep" in most land
animals .
The best-known 'sleepers' are the
parrotfishes (family Scaridae).
Many parrotfishes find a suitable spot on the
seafloor and secrete a mucus envelope in
which they spend the night.
Do Fish sleep?
Many fish, like Bass and perch, rest on or under logs at night.
Coral reef fish active in the day, hide and rest in crevices and
cracks in the reef to avoid being eaten at night.
The resting behavior of fish is very different from their behavior
the rest of the day.
Once “believed” to
be extinct for
70,000,000 years,
based on fossil
Now hundreds have
been caught.
 Are
cold-blooded vertebrate
 Live in water
 Usually have paired fins, gills, and
 Most
fish lay large numbers of
eggs, but some have live birth.
 Most
fish breathe by drawing water
over four or five pairs of gills.
Dyed Fish
With all of the beautifully colored fish in the world, it is amazing that
people feel the need to "improve upon" natural beauty.
And yet, fish stores around the world stock fish that have been
dipped, tattooed, or injected with dyes.
These fish suffer a very high immediate mortality rate, and those that
survive often have a greatly increased chance of future illness.
Some fish are tattooed with very intricate patterns that would look
gorgeous on a human.
Unlike human recipients of tattoos, these fish have not given their
permission to painfully modify their body.
Further, it is harder for a fish to protect against follow-up infection
than it is for a human to protect against the same.
Another process involves dipping fish in a chemical that burns away
the slime-coat followed by a dip in high-concentration dye. Though
not as invasive as tattooing or injection, it removes the fishes' first
line of protection and then coats the gills and probably stomach of
the fish affected
This affects respiration and likely other body functions, as well.
Other fish are injected with dye.
In some cases, this creates an all-over color change. In others, it
creates little pockets of dye.
One of the most considerable changes comes from the injection of
fluorescent dye into the Glassfish.
This creates little fluorescent pockets in the fish.
While neat-looking, the process involves a needle bore that would be
the equivalent of using a #2 pencil as a needle for a human.
Fish Feel Pain
While it may seem obvious that fish are able to feel pain, like every other animal,
some people still think of fish as swimming vegetables.
In fact, regarding the ability to feel pain, fish are equal to dogs, cats, and all
other animals. Dr. Donald Broom, scientific advisor to the British government,
"The scientific literature is quite clear. Anatomically, physiologically and
biologically, the pain system in fish is virtually the same as in birds and
Genetically Engineered fish
Glo fish
Are zebra danios that have
The process, begins by adding a fluorescence gene to the fish before
it hatches from its egg.
Once the gene integrates into the genome of the embryo, the
developing fish will be able to pass the fluorescence gene along to its
offspring upon maturity.
Because of this, the gene only needs to be added to one embryo;
from that point forward, all subsequent fluorescent fish are the result
of traditional breeding.
Green glo fish: have a green fluorescent protein (GFP), originally
extracted from a jellyfish, that naturally produced bright green
red fluorescent zebra fish have a red color by adding a gene
from a sea coral,
yellow fluorescent zebra fish, by adding a variant of the jellyfish
Blood red Parrot fish
Because this hybrid cichlid has
various anatomical deformities,
controversy exists over the ethics of
creating the Blood Parrot. One of the
most obvious, and also deadly,
deformities is its mouth, which only
has very narrow vertical opening.
This makes blood parrot very hard to
Engineer goby mimics the posionous marine catfish when
small, then changes appearance as it grows
Scribbled AngelFish
The class of Cartilaginous fish
(shark,skates, and
850 species of sharks, rays, and skates
Sharks have five to seven gill slits on both sides of the pharynx; no
gill covers.
Body covered by epidermal placoid (tooth-like) scales; teeth are
enlarged scales.
Sharks have a streamlined body
Sharp vision, colorblind
Teeth embedded in gum, not anchored in jaw
Three senses detect: smells, electric currents, pressure (a
lateral line system).
 Have a 2 chambered heart (1 atria, 1 ventricle)
 Most are fast predators; great white shark eats dolphins and
Rays & skates live on ocean floor; pectoral fins enlarged into
wing-like fins.
 Stingrays have a venomous spine.
Electric rays stun prey with electric shock of over 300 volts.
The piked dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is
very abundant, especially in the North Atlantic
Ocean. It is a small shark, about 63 inches (1.6
m) long.
Closed Circulatory Systems (Blood Loops)
Fish (One loop)
- Heart to gills to body to heart
- Larvae (one loop)
- Adult (two loops)
* Heart to the lungs and back to the heart
* Heart to the body and back to the heart
Reptiles (two loops – three chambered heart)
Birds (two loops – four chambered heart)
Mammals (two loops – four chambered heart)
Comparing Circulatory Systems (Blood flow)
 Are dioecious
 Most are oviparous: Lay leathery eggs
on land
 Are often called cold-blooded: they
can't regulate their own body
6,000 species
 Have scales
 Have a 3 chambered heart ( 2atria,
 Respiration: lungs more finely divided
than Amphibians, have jointed ribs
that expand lungs
 Reptiles
do not use energy to fuel
internal "furnaces"
 Although reptiles breathe through
lungs, some reptiles can also absorb
oxygen in water through their mouth.
Reptile Orders:
 1.
Squamata: lizards and snakes
 2. Chelonia: Turtles (aquatic), and
tortoises (land)
 3.Crocodila: crocodiles and alligators
 3 pit vipors in North America are:
cottonmouth, copperhead and
 3 largest snakes: python, Boa,
Largest venomous snake is king cobra
 Pit vipors use pits to see warm objects
in dark.
Snakes constitute the suborder Serpentes (or
Ophidia )
Most snakes can climb and almost all can swim.
By looking at a snake, no one can distinguish between a male or
Snakes also pick up some airborne vibrations via their lungs.
New Zealand has no snakes at all!
Snakes are incapable of learning. This is because they lack the
enlarged Cerebral Hemispheres found in birds and mammals, this
part of the brain controls learning and thought.
Snakes move by using special muscles attached to their ribs. If you put a snake
on a smooth piece of glass, the snake will not be able to move because there is
nothing to grab onto.
Snakes can swallow big prey, three times bigger than their own mouth.. On a
couple of occasions, some snakes have swallowed whole Tigers.
Most snakes have over 200 teeth. They use these teeth to hold their prey in
place while eating. They cannot chew with these teeth because they are
pointing backwards
The body of the snake contains a string of vertebrae ( more than 120 in the
body and tail and in some species as many as 585)
Snakes are deaf to airborne sounds.
Snakes move slower than an adult human can run; the fastest recorded speed
achieved by any snake is about 13 km/hr (8 mph), but few can go that fast.
Snakes have no movable eyelids or external ears.
You can't tell the age of a rattlesnake by counting its rattles because it gets a
new rattle each time it sheds its skin, which can occur 1 to 6 times per year.
Common Cobra venom is not on the list of top 10 venoms yet is still 40 times
more toxic than cyanide
The fastest moving land snake is the Black Mamba
 Jaws can readily dislocate to engulf large food.
 A tongue collects airborne molecules to
transfer them to Jacobson's organ for tasting.
 Some are poisonous with special fangs.
Photo of hip region of
The photo is of the hip region of Najash rionegrina, an extinct
The right femur is in the upper part of the photo
Once upon a time, snakes had legs, and a new discovery reveals at
least one had hips too.
The real kicker is that the snake has hip vertebrae, which likely
allowed the critter to use its legs to dig and crawl.
Snake Anatomy
picture of a carcass of an alligator as it protudes
out from the body of a dead Burmese python in
Everglades National Park, Florida the National Park
Lizards have four clawed legs and are
Chameleons live in trees; have a long sticky
tongue to catch insects, and change color.
Creation “Magnifying the LORD!”
How does a Gecko walk on smooth glass?
Gecko’s toes sticking to super-smooth semiconductor glass:
Varieties of Gecko Feet
Gecko hanging upside down from smooth glass:
One toe from a Gecko:
Each pad
on each toe
has many
of “Setae”
Thousands of
setae on each
This is a single, isolated “Setal”:
The tip of the
setal, with
thousands of
The tips of a few setae:
The tip of a single setal, showing thousands of spatulae:
Thousands of “spatulae” on each setal:
God’s awesome design defies evolution:
- Each toe has thousands of setae.
- Each setal has thousands of spatulae.
Each spatulae is able to adhere (stick) to the
molecules of any substance.
- “Van der Waals” forces are the forces that
hold each spatulae to the molecules.
Man-made, synthetic “adhesive” modeled from the Gecko
Take a guess ?
 Turtles
have a heavy shell fused to the
ribs and thoracic vertebrae.
 Turtles lack teeth but use a sharp beak.
 Sea turtles must return to lay eggs
"What is the difference between a turtle, a
tortoise and a terrapin?"
A turtle is any reptile that lives in a shell.
A tortoise is a turtle that lives on the land but can enter the water
for a drink, to cool off or to escape and evade predators.
A terrapin is a turtle that lives primarily in water, generally
leaving only to lay eggs or to bask in the sun.
The carapace (top) and the
plastron (bottom) are joined
along the sides by a part called
the bridge
difficult to tell a male from a female in most
turtles, until they are older
The males of all turtles will have a longer, thicker tail, with
the cloaca located closer to the tip of the tail, whereas
females with have a smaller, thinner tail with the vent closer
to the main part of the body.
In some of the more commonly kept turtles (Sliders, some Maps,
Painteds, Cooters), males will also have exceptionally long
foreclaws; the females having smaller ones.
Males in some species will also display a concave or dented-in
This is to allow the male to better mount the female when mating.
Adult females which have laid a clutch of eggs will have a semipliable anal section of the plastron.
The temperature of the egg
during incubation determines the
sex of a turtle.
The ratio of males to females
is 1:1 at the pivotal
temperature of 29 C.; higher
temperatures favor the
formation of females, and lower
temperatures favor the
formation of males.
Turtle Shell designs
1. Buttresses
The flying buttresses of a cathedral strengthen its walls to support
the massive weights of its towering cupolas
In a turtle shell these buttresses are brought inside the arch
In architecture, a cupola is a small, most-often dome-like
structure, on top of a building
2. Pillars:
In side necked turtles the pelvis is ridgedly fussed inside the
plaston below and the carapace above.
These strong pillars protect the shell from being crushed
3. Geodesic dome:
It is a spherical or partial-spherical shell structure based on a
network of great circles (geodesics) lying on the surface of a
The geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that have
local triangular rigidity and also distribute the stress across the
entire structure
Turtles can breathe out of their butts.
Turtles have amazing anaerobic capabilities, which allow them to survive on very little
oxygen for prolonged periods of time.
Like most animals/reptiles, they DO have lungs which take in air through the mouth
and nose.
But in a few species, there is a pair of sacs, or bursae that are connected to the internal
portion of the cloacal opening, a single exit that acts as both the port for sexual
reproduction and digestive system elimination.
They can suck water into their cloaca, and into two pockets that come off
the chamber.
These pockets are lined with veins, and the turtles can absorb oxygen from
the water into their blood.
The Fitzroy River turtle is one of the select few who can stay underwater,
inhale water through the cloacal opening, and extract oxygen for its system.
They also can breathe that way on land
Crocodile: Narrow
mouth, protruding
teeth These are the
only 4 chambered
heart reptiles
Alligator: broad
snout, conical teeth
Dinosaurs varied in size and behavior; some
had a bipedal stance, other quadrapedal.
Dinosaurs were taken on the Ark
(Hebrew for Ark = Box)
Dinosaurs died out later due to lack of
vegetation, cold, etc.
Dinosaurs and the Bible?
Job 40:15
"Look now at the behemoth,
which I made along with you;
He eats grass like an ox.
16 See now, his strength is in his hips,
And his power is in his stomach muscles.
17 He moves his tail like a cedar tree;
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