Analysis of the electric energy storage in different renewable scenarios

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Analysis of the electric
energy storage in different
renewable energy scenarios
Wayne Götz, Tobias Tröndle, Ulrich Platt und Werner Aeschbach-Hertig
University of Heidelberg
DPG Frühjahrstagung – Dresden | 4. März 2013
Global Energy Supply Model
Input:
• energy production mix
• overcapacity
• load management
• electromobility
MEET*
Restrictions:
• resolution of area: 2.5° (MERRA)
• resolution of time: 1h
• perfect electricity grid
• storage efficiency: 81%
• demand curve (Germany 2008)
• 10 types of energy producers
Output:
• timeseries
• storage capacity
• installed capacity of energy production
•…
*Meteorological based Energy Equilibrium Testing
2
demand in Europe
analysis of frequencies
8
5
x 10
4.5
4
demand
3.5
FFTFFT
demand
Demand
3
7
2.5
10
x 10
2
9
1.5
1
8
0.5
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
7
9000
= 1 year
6
|Y(f)|
|Y(f)|
8
x 10
4.8
4.6
365 (24h)
5
4
4.4
demand
4.2
3
4
3.8
2
3.6
3.4
1
≈ 1 week
3.2
0
3
2.8
1450
1500
1550
Database: 2010_mix
1600
1650
1700
0
200
400
600
Frequency
800
1000
1200
frequency [year-1]
3
photovoltaics in Europe
analysis of frequencies
8
2.5
x 10
supply
2
FFT
PV
FFT PV
1.5
7
10
x 10
1
9
0.5
8
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
7
9000
= 1 year
365 (24h)
6
|Y(f)|
|Y(f)|
7
x 10
18
16
5
4
14
supply
12
3
≈ 1 week
10
2
8
6
1
4
0
2
0
3000
3050
Database: 2010_mix
3100
3150
3200
0
200
400
600
Frequency
800
1000
1200
frequency [year-1]
4
wind onshore in Europe
analysis of frequencies
8
6
x 10
5
supply
4
FFTFFTwind
onshore
Wind Onshore
7
3
2
2
1.8
1
1.6
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
x 10
1.4
9000
365 (24h)
= 1 year
1.2
|Y(f)|
|Y(f)|
8
x 10
4
3.5
1
0.8
supply
3
0.6
2.5
0.4
2
0.2
1.5
≈ 2 weeks
1
1700
1800
1900
2000
Database: 2010_65on_35off
2100
0
2200
0
200
400
600
Frequency
800
1000
1200
frequency [year-1]
5
renewables and their consequences on
storages
storage
[% of power demand]
need of storage
increases
strongly
influence of the energy mix
on storage
storage capacity
[% of annual electricity demand]
storage capacity [TWh]
need of energy storage for
Europe*
best energy
mix for Europe
60% sun & 40% wind
mix of energy
% of installed renewables
*Tröndle, T., Platt, U., Aeschbach-Hertig, W. and Pfeilsticker, K. (2012), Erneuerbare Energie für Europa.
Physik in unserer Zeit, 43: 300–306.
6
tranferscenarios
2010_mix45
2010_mix35
2010_mix20
2010_mix10
wind onshore
wind offshore
photovoltaics
wave power
hydro power
CSP power
bio power
nuclear power
coal power
gas power
20%
26%
30%
34%
30%
5%
5%
39%
5%
5%
45%
5%
5%
51%
5%
5%
5%
10%
10%
15%
5%
5%
5%
10%
15%
10%
45%
controllable
35%
controllable
20%
controllable
renewables
name
10%
controllable
7
scenarios
name
2010_65on_35off
2010_60_40
65%
35%
40%
100%
0%
controllable
renewables
wind onshore
wind offshore
photovoltaics
wave power
hydro power
CSP power
bio power
nuclear power
coal power
gas power
2010_100sun
60%
0%
controllable
0%
controllable
8
2010_60_40 in Europe
8
FFT Storage
x 10
10
FFT Storage
9
Amount of total accumulated stored energy:
8
7
8.29 ∙ 1011 kWh
6
|Y(f)|
Storage:
5
365 (24h)
4
Storage (>24h):
3.17 ∙ 1011 kWh
Storage (<24h):
7.72 ∙
3
2
1
1011 kWh
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Frequency
storage
[% of power demand]
3.5
3
storage [% of power demand]
2.5
storage [% of power demand]
storage
[% of power demand]
3.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
time [h]
*Percentage of total energy consumption
6000
7000
8000
9000
max = 1.0 ∙ 1011
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
max = 3.4 ∙ 109
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
time [h]
9
overview of installed storage capacity in
different scenarios
influence of the energy mix on installed storage
capacity
installed storage capacity
[kWh]
1.0E+12
1.0E+11
1.0E+10
max(storage)
max(storage (>24h))
1.0E+09
max(storage (<24h))
1.0E+08
in the 2010_60_40 scenario the installed storage (>24h) capacity is ≈ 30 times
higher than the installed storage (<24h) capacity
10
overview of the quantity of cycles the
storages are used
influence of the energy mix on quantity of cycles
300
253
cycles [counts]
250
228
226
200
157
150
99
87
100
50
16
3
cycles(storage (>24h))
cycles(storage (<24h))
7
2
3
1
1
0
in a 100% renewable energy scenario the storage (>24h) is used only once a year and the
storage (<24h) is used up to ≈ 2/3 days a year
11
storage technologies
overview storage capacity of different
energy storage systems*
discharge time [h]
1a
1m
storage
technologies
energy density
(kWh/m³)
24h
Hydrogen
3 (Atmospheric
pressure);
530 (20 MPa);
1400 (70 MPa)
Compressed Air
Storage
3 (Δp =2 MPa);
12 (Δp =8.5 MPa)
1h
Pumped-storage 0.82 (300m drop
Hydeoelectricity height)
*Energy [R]evolution, Greenpeace, June 2012, 259
12
summary and outlook
summary
•
installed long-term storage (>24h) capacity can be around 30 times higher
than short-term installed storage (<24h) capacity
•
short-term storage will be used up to 2/3 days and the long-term storage
from 1 to 3 times a year
outlook
•
analysis and optimization of the separation of storage in short-term and
long-term
•
analysis of the transfer process into a 100% renewable scenario
•
analysis of the variation of storage from 2000 – 2010
13
thank you very much
for
your attention
14
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