Arctic tundra is located in the northern hemisphere,
encircling the north pole and extending south to the
coniferous forests of the taiga. The arctic is known for its
cold, desert-like conditions. The growing season ranges
from 50 to 60 days. The average winter temperature is -34°
C (-30° F), but the average summer temperature is 3-12° C
(37-54° F) which enables this biome to sustain life. Rainfall
may vary in different regions of the arctic. Yearly
precipitation, including melting snow, is 15 to 25 cm (6 to
10 inches). Soil is formed slowly. There are no deep root
systems in the vegetation of the arctic tundra, however,
there are still a wide variety of plants that are able to
resist the cold climate. There are about 1,700 kinds of
plants in the arctic and subarctic, and these include:
low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and
The Herbivores are: voles, caribou, arctic hares and
The Omnivores are: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears
The birds are: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, terns,
snow birds, and various species of gulls
The Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers,
blackflies and arctic bumble bees
The Fish are: Fish cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout.
Animals are adapted to handle long, cold winters and to
breed and raise young quickly in the summer. Animals such as
mammals and birds also have additional insulation from fat.
For Example, the Arctic fox is a mammal that lives there in
the arctic tundra. This animal is an herbivore. I will be
talking more about this arctic fox.
The ecosystem in the arctic land tundra, is very snowy and
with very low temperatures from the average annual
temperature is only 10 to 20F (-12C to -6C). Animals such as
polar bear, caribou, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, Snowy Owl, musk
ox, rock ptarmigan, greyfalcon, wolverine, grey wolf, and
insects such as the cockroach. All of these animals are part
of this ecosystem.
Well the producers are grass and other small flower-like
plants that survive cold climates, a producer could be
reindeer moss. Plants are short because the ground is
warm, and they like being warm. Next is the primary
consumers. There are musk oxen, insects like mosquitoes,
and lemmings (rat-like creatures). Small predators, like the
Snowy Owl and the Arctic Fox.
Reindeer moss is a producer that is found and is part of the
arctic Tundra. This producer is a combination of alga and
fungus. They both share a symbiotic relationship and making
a new plant that is reindeer moss.
The musk oxen is first level producer and it is an herbivore. Its
nickname is muskox. They are very related to goats and sheep. The
muskox has hooves that helps it break the frozen lake to drink water
from it. Another adaptation is that it can see really bright in the dark,
its warm fur keeps it war,, and its horns warns predators away.Wide
variety of plants, including grasses, sedges, forbs, and woody plants.
One of their favorite foods is willow.
The arctic fox is a white mammal. The arctic fox has a dense,
bushy coat and a long, fluffy tail. There are two color phases.
For the white phase, the fox has a thick, white coat during the
colder, winter months and a shorter brownish to gray coat in
the summer. The blue phase fox, has a long white coat in the
winter and a shorter darker gray coat in the summer.
The Arctic Fox will generally eat any small animal it can find:
lemmings, hares, owls, eggs, and carrion, etc. Lemmings are
the most common prey. A family of foxes can eat dozens of
lemmings each day. During April and May the Arctic Fox also
preys on Ringed Seal pups when the young animals are
confined to a snow den and are relatively helpless. Fish
beneath the ice are also part of its diet. If there is an
overabundance of food hunted, the Arctic Fox will bury what
the family cannot eat.
This organism lives in the arctic tundra. Mostly in the
northern hemisphere. These places are Arctic regions of
Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and Iceland.
The Arctic Fox lives in some of the most frigid extremes on
the planet. Among its adaptations for cold survival are its
deep, thick fur, a system of in the circulation of paws to
retain temperature, and a good supply of body fat. The, as
evidenced by its generally rounded body shape, short
muzzle and legs, and short, thick ears\ Its furry paws allow
it to walk on ice in search of food. The Arctic Fox has such
keen hearing that it can precisely locate the position of
prey under the snow. When it finds prey, it pounces and
punches through the snow to catch its victim. Its fur
changes color with the seasons: in the winter it is white to
blend in with snow, while in the summer months it changes
to brown.
The mating season is May-February and the gestation period
for a pregnant female is 52 days. The number of pups born
can range between 6-19, and the newborns weigh
approximately 2 ounces. Whelps are helpless and blind when
first born. They nurse until they can eat solid food. Both
parents care for the pups. The mother raises the young while
the father hunts for lemmings and other food. They start to
eat solids after 6 weeks and leave the den after 14-15 weeks.
An average life span for the arctic fox is around three years.
The pups are brown when first born.
We should not be concerned about this mammal
because it is not being hunted, it is at the top of it’s
food chain, and it is not threatened nor extinct.
1. True or false? The arctic tundra’s temperature below zero.
2. True or False? The arctic tundra is very hot with extreme hot temperature.
3. True or false? The arctic fox is a carnivore.
4. True or false? 1 of the arctic fox’s adaptations its deep thick fur.
5. True or false? The arctic fox is endangered.
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