A Comparative Display of Health Outcomes in Eastern North Carolina

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A Comparative Display of Health
Outcomes in Eastern North
Carolina
ELLEN BRANCH
KAITLYN COLLINS
LAUREN CHANDLER NOBLES
Health Outcomes in Eastern N.C.
 A comparative display of health outcomes in Eastern North
Carolina by category of race (white or non-white) and
county


Counties were grouped by white, non-white, or evenly balanced (20%
or less difference)
Non-white: African American, Asian, American Indian/ Alaskan
Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Other, and 2 or more races
 Is there a correlation between a person being of a minority
race (non-white) and having higher disease (or stroke)
mortality rates?

Hypothesis: Being of a minority race (non-white) is positively
correlated with a higher disease (or stroke) mortality rate.
Methodology
 Comparison Groups: White vs. non-white
 Data source: NC Health Data Explorer
 Measures: 1 year mortality rates per 100,000 in 2010 for 5 health
indicators (white and non-white)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke
COPD
Diabetes
 Rates were used instead of counts to allow comparison of health
events between two populations.
 Counties of focus: counties in the Eastern N.C. region
 Counties of particular focus include, but are not limited to: Tyrrell, Hertford,
Washington, Hyde, Jones, Hoke, Perquimans, Currituck, Greene, Dare, Bertie,
Pender, Camden
5 Indicators of Health
 According to the North Carolina State Center for
Health Statistics, the top five leading causes of death
in Eastern N.C. are: heart disease, cancer,
cerebrovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory
disease, and diabetes.


In place of cerebrovascular disease, stroke is used because it is
classified as a cerebrovascular accident.
In place of chronic lower respiratory disease, COPD is used
because it is a broad term for chronic respiratory diseases, such
as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
County Groupings
 Mostly White (19)-
Beaufort, Brunswick, Camden,
Carteret, Chowan, Columbus,
Craven, Currituck, Dare, Gates,
Harnett, Hyde, Johnston, Jones,
New Hanover, Onslow, Pamlico,
Pender, Perquimans
 Mostly Non-White (5)Bertie, Edgecombe, Hertford,
North Hampton, Robeson
 Evenly Balanced* (17)Bladen, Cumberland, Duplin,
Greene, Halifax, Hoke, Lenoir,
Martin, Nash, Pasquotank, Pitt,
Sampson, Scotland, Tyrrell,
Washington, Wayne, Wilson
* +/- 20% population distribution
5 Indicators of Health: Heart Disease
Heart Disease
• Minorities are at a greater risk for
heart disease.
• African Americans and American
Indians/Alaskan Natives are more
likely than whites to have high
blood pressure.
• Mexican Americans are more likely
to be obese/overweight.
• Both are risk factors
Heart Disease Findings in Eastern N.C.
Average Heart Disease Mortality in
Whites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average Heart Disease Mortality in
Non-whites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average
Average
Lowest
Lowest
Heart
DiseaseWhites
Heart
Disease- Non
Whites
Highest
Highest
0
100
200
300
400
Lowest: Hertford, New Hanover,
Hoke, Pamlico, Pender
Highest: Tyrrell, Martin, Scotland,
Washington, Hyde
0
100
200
300
400
Lowest: Hyde, Gates, Dare, Tyrrell,
Bertie
Highest: Washington, Martin,
Columbus, Perquimans, Nash
Non-whites fare slightly worse than whites for
heart disease mortality rates.
5 Indicators of Health: Cancer
Cancer
• Health care coverage and low
socioeconomic status are the most
obvious factors that contribute to
health disparities in cancer among
various racial and ethnic groups.
• African Americans have the highest
rates of cancer.
Cancer Findings in Eastern N.C.
Average Cancer Mortality for Nonwhites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average Cancer Mortality in Whites in
Eastern NC, 2010
Average
Average
Lowest
Lowest
Cancer-Non Whites
Cancer-Whites
Highest
Highest
0
100
200
Lowest: Pitt, Camden, Pamlico,
Pender, Perquimans
Highest: Tyrrell, Gates, Jones,
Washington, Pasquotank
300
0
100
200
Lowest: Dare, Tyrrell, Camden,
Perquimans, Martin
Highest: Wilson, Lenoir, Pitt,
Carteret, Columbus
Whites fare worse than non-whites for cancer
mortality rates.
300
5 Indicators of Health: Stroke
Stroke
•
•
African Americans have a much higher risk of death from strokes than
Whites.
• Higher risk of controllable risk factors: high blood pressure,
diabetes
Uncontrollable risk factors include being African American, Hispanic,
or Asian/ Pacific Islander.
Stroke Findings in Eastern N.C.
Average Stroke Mortality for Nonwhites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average Stroke Mortality in Whites
in Eastern NC, 2010
Average
Average
Lowest
Lowest
Stroke- Non
Whites
Stroke-Whites
Highest
Highest
0
20
40
60
Lowest: Hoke, Lenoir, Dare,
Gates, Pasquotank
Highest: Jones, Beaufort,
Halifax, Greene, Edgecombe
80
0
50
100
150
Lowest: Perquimans, Pamlico, Currituck,
Scotland, Pender
Highest: Hyde, Dare, Greene,
Edgecombe, Camden
Non-whites generally fare worse than whites
for stroke mortality rates.
5 Indicators of Health: COPD
COPD
 Age-adjusted death rates are
higher among Whites and men.
 Whites have the highest rates for
women, and Native
American/Alaskan Native women
are 2nd.
 Hispanics have much lower rates
than Whites and other racial
groups.
COPD findings in Eastern N.C.
Average COPD Mortality in Whites in
Eastern NC, 2010
Average COPD Mortality for Non-whites in
Eastern NC, 2010
Average
Average
COPD-Whites
Lowest
Highest
COPD-Non
Whites
Lowest
Highest
0
20
40
60
80
100
Lowest: Greene, Perquimans, Hertford,
Halifax, Bladen
Highest: Currituck, Camden, Gates,
Tyrrell, Martin
0
20
40
60
Lowest: Hyde, Carteret,
Washington, Currituck, Camden
Highest: Dare, Gates, Scotland,
Bladen, Tyrrell
Whites fare worse than non-whites for
COPD mortality rates.
80
5 Health Indicators: Diabetes
Diabetes
 Being of a minority race, especially
African American, makes a person
at a significantly higher risk for
developing Type 2 diabetes than
non-Hispanic whites.

Blacks are 1.7 times more likely to have
diabetes than whites.
Diabetes Findings in Eastern N.C.
Average Diabetes Mortality in
Whites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average Diabetes Mortality for Nonwhites in Eastern NC, 2010
Average
Average
DiabetesWhites
Lowest
Highest
Diabetes-Non
Whites
Lowest
Highest
0
10
20
30
40
50
Lowest: Tyrrell, Washington,
Currituck, Perquimans, Pamlico
Highest: Bertie, Hertford,
Robeson, Chowan, Hyde
0
50
100
Lowest: Camden, Currituck, Pamlico,
Carteret, Dare
Highest: Pender, Tyrrell, Sampson,
Scotland, Wayne
Non-whites fare much worse than whites for
diabetes mortality rates.
Conclusions
1.
2.
3.
Whites fared worse than non-whites in regards to mortality rates for
COPD and cancer.
Non-whites fared worse than whites in regards to mortality rates for
diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.
Pender, Dare, Tyrrell, Perquimans, Pamlico, Camden, and Currituck
counties were repeatedly (3 or more times) in the category with the
LOWEST rates for various indicators.

4.
Tyrrell, Martin, Scotland, Washington, Hyde, and Gates were
repeatedly (3 or more times) in the category with the HIGHEST
rates for various indicators.

5.
All listed counties are mostly white, except Tyrrell.
A majority of these counties are evenly balanced.
Thus, overall non-whites suffer at a higher rate from the majority of
the top five leading causes of death in Eastern N.C. than whites.
SOURCES









http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/all.html
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/disparities/cancer-health-disparities#4
http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/statistics.htm
http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/solddcchapters/copd.pdf
http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=RISK
http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Understandin
gRisk/Understanding-Risk_UCM_308539_SubHomePage.jsp
www.mayoclinic.com/health/stroke/DS00150/DSECTION=risk-factors
www.cdc.gov/diabetes/index.htm
http://books.google.com/books?id=5Sn4xuHBfmkC&pg=PA159&lpg=PA159
&dq=copd+rates+in+minorities&source=bl&ots=s3EMGQ4E1T&sig=ZtsRjL
R2nbFcfhIG0c5jLuVLFzM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1Et0UcP1MrWu4AOo1oGYBw&
ved=0CHcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=copd%20rates%20in%20minorities&f=f
alse
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