The Moon - mrbemrose

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Space Part 2
Rotation, Tilt, Orbits
and Seasons
Moon and Tides
Ms. Konrad, 2014
Learning Goals
LG (4). Understand the relative movements of the earth, moon and sun.
SC
• I can draw a diagram showing the orbits of the earth, moon and sun,
including their directions.
• I can compare the rotation speed of the earth, moon, and sun.
LG (5). Identify, through investigation, the effects of the following have on
the weather conditions on Earth: the rotation and tilt of the Earth, and the
Earth’s orbit around the sun.
SC
• I can explain how the sun creates day and night.
• I can describe how and why the length of day varies due to the tilt of the
earth and a person’s location on the globe.
• I can explain what causes the seasons.
• I can identify and explain the significance of the four equinoxes.
LG (6). Investigate the phenomena caused by the relative locations
of the Earth, Moon, and Sun.
SC
• I can draw a diagram to show the position of the Earth, Moon and Sun
during both lunar and solar eclipses.
• I can explain what a solar and lunar eclipse look like.
• I can explain why we see the moon in different phases.
• I can visually identify the phase of the moon as waxing, waning, new,
or full.
• I can explain what causes tides on Earth
• I can tell you when to expect high and low tides, as well as spring and
neap tides.
• I can create a diagram and explanation of the Earth, Moon, and Sun’s
locations during spring and neap tides.
Orbits
Orbit: the closed path a satellite takes around another body
- All planets in our solar system orbit the sun
- Moons orbit planets
- DEMO (ball and string)
Gravity: the force which pulls one mass toward another
- Examples:
- Human down toward the earth
- Earth toward the sun
- Moon toward the earth
- Causes orbits, prevents satellites from flying off in a
straight line
Earth and Moon Orbits
Radius of Earth: 6378 km (1 earth)
Radius of Orbit
(km)
Radius of Moon: 1738 km (0.273 Earths)
Radius of Sun: 695500 km (109 Earths)
1.60E+08
Speed of orbit (km/hr)
Days/orbit
1.40E+08
120000
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1.20E+08
100000
80000
1.00E+08
60000
8.00E+07
40000
6.00E+07
20000
4.00E+07
Earth
365
Moon
29
0
Earth
107 200
Moon
3 679.2
2.00E+07
0.00E+00
Earth Moon
1.5 x 108
3.85 x 105
Rotation and Tilt
Axis of rotation: The invisible line around which a
celestial body rotates
Orbit: the closed path a satellite takes around
another body
Tilt: The angle at which the axis lies relative to
the perpendicular of its orbital plane (cardboard
cutout in the demo)
Rotation: what effect does it have?
Days/rotation
30
25
Earth: 1 day/rotation
Sun: 25 days/rot
Moon: 27.3 days/rot
20
15
10
5
0
Earth
Moon
Sun
Tilt: what effect does it have?
Earth: 23.5°
Moon: 1.5424°
Orbital/
http://www.nfo.edu/moonview.htm
Axis
Sun
Perpendicular
orbital
plane
Earth
orbital
plane
orbital
plane
http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2010/06/21/measure-the-tilt-of-the-earth/
Hemisphere
Hemi = half
Sphere = 3D circle
Hemisphere = half-sphere
Demo with half of a broken sun ball
It is day on the side of the earth which faces the sun
It is night on the side which faces away from the sun.
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/01/20/3116529.htm
Globe and Light Demo (dots)
What happens when the globe is tilted
toward the sun? Away?
Direct radiation: what happens when there
is more?
Length of Day and Seasons
Longer days when our hemisphere is tilted towards
the sun (summer).
• More direct radiation.
Shorter days when our hemisphere is tilted away
from the sun (winter).
• Less direct radiation
Seasons
Key Terms: Solstice, Equinox
http://www.universetoday.com/27474/vernal-equinox-busting-the-myth-of-balancing-eggs/
Seasons Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pgq0LThW7QA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSNs15sEINM
https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B0E
MJmndBs_EQ1RWYl9hbkNiZlE&usp=sharing
Homework
Reading: pg 320-328
Textbook Questions: pg. 328 # 2-11
http://www.moonconnection.com/moon_phases_calendar.phtml
Phases of the moon
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Lunar_libration_with_
phase2.gif
Planetary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJXsNmbTPSc
• Like earth, one side of the moon experiences
“day”, and the other “night”
• The phase of the moon is its appearance at
different locations in its orbit.
• 1 full cycle of phases per month (29.5 day orbit)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWOX7dgC2Bk
Key phases
Waxing moon: The bright portion is getting “larger” and sits on the right side
Waning moon: The dark portion is getting “larger” and sits on the right side
New moon: The moon is not visible (dark side faces earth)
Full moon: The entire moon is bright and circular (light side faces earth)
Phases of the Moon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Moon_phases_en.jpg
Eclipses
Solar Eclipse: When our view of the sun is blocked out by the
moon. Can only occur at a new moon, when the moon is
between the Earth and Sun.
Lunar Eclipse: When the moon is in the Earth’s shadow. Can
only occur at a full moon, when the Earth lies between the
moon and Sun.
Hand Demo
**Solar eclipses can only be seen from some locations on
the earth.
**Lunar eclipses are visible from anywhere with a view of
the moon.
http://www.iceinspace.com.au/63-682-0-0-1-0.html
Solar Eclipse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solar_eclipse_1999_4_NR.jpg
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/178098/eclipse/11202/The-fre
eclipses
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8161578.stm
Tides
The gravity of the moon pulls
the ocean water toward the
Moon as it orbits causing tides
to rise on that side.
Spring tides: The largest tides.
They occur when the Moon and
Sun are in line with each other
(on the same or opposite sides of
the earth) so their gravitational
forces combine (add up)
Neap tides: The smallest tides.
They occur when the Moon and
Sun are on perpendicular sides of
the Earth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tide
Spring and Neap Tides
http://blog.ucsusa.org/todays-king-tides-preview-the-future-of-sea-level-rise-162
Sources
Hamilton, Calvin J.; Hamilton, Rosanna L., The Moon,Views of the Solar
System, 1995–2011
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit_of_the_Moon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon#cite_note-SolarViews-98
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_eclipse
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