Chapter 9 Cooking Methods Foods 2 9-1 Equipment for Cooking Learning Targets Major Cooking Appliances Major Cooking Appliances The Range Gas Range Electric Range Coil Elements (LAB) Induction Cooktops The Convection Oven- fan circulates heated air (cooks faster than Conventional) The Microwave Oven Small Cooking Appliances Toaster- browns bread products on both sides Toaster Oven- toasts bread, heats up foods, and bakes small amounts of foods Electric Skillet- thermostat controls temperature of skillet, useful for frying, roasting, steaming and baking Portable electric burner-A small appliance that works like the cooktop on a range Slow Cooker- a deep pot with a heating element convenient for one-dish meals Broiler/grill-a small, portable electric grill used to broil or grill food indoors Rice cooker/streamer- used to cook large quantities of rice or to steam veggies Cookware and Bakeware pg 265 Cookware Saucepans- one long handle and often come with lid Pots- 3 to 20 quarts Skillets- “frying pans” used for browning and frying foods Double broiler- Two saucepans a smaller one fits into the larger one, boiling water in the bottom pan gently heats the food in the upper pan. Dutch oven- on top of the range or in the oven, may have rack for meats Steamer- Basketlike container placed into a saucepan containing a small amount of boiling water. Holes in the steamer allow steam to pass through and cook the food Pressure cooker- locked-on cover and steam gauge. Steam builds up inside and cooks foods faster than a normal pot Bakeware Loaf pan- deep, narrow, rectangular pan used to bake breads and meatloaf Cookie sheet- flat, rectangular pan designed for baking cookies and biscuits. A cookie sheet has two or three open sides. Baking sheet- Similar to a cookie sheet, except with four shallow sides Cake pans Tube pan- circular with central tube to help trap added air Pie pan- shallow, round pans for pies, tarts, quiches Muffin pans- muffins, cupcakes, rolls Roasting pans- large, heavy pans for meats Casserole- a covered or uncovered pan used for main dishes or desserts Aluminum foil pans- one time use for special occasions Cooking Tools Turner- used to lift and turn flat foods TongsBasting spoon- used to stir and baste foods during cooking Baster- a long tube with a bulb on the end used for suctioning up juices for basting LadlePastry brushSkewers- long rods made of metal or bamboo Oven meat thermometer Instant-read thermometer Wire cooling racks Potholders and oven mitts 9-2 Heat and Cooking Learning Targets Methods of Heat Transfer Conduction—pancake in a skillet. Heat from the cooktop heating unit is conducted into the skillet which in turn passes the heat along to the bottom of the pancake and finally inside the food. Convection- movement of air or liquid. As air or liquid is heated, the hotter portions rise above the colder ones. This creates a convection current. Radiation- Heat from a broiler strikes and warms (think of the sun and the earth) 9-3 Conventional Cooking Techniques Learning Targets: Moist-heat Methods Boiling- Forms large bubbles that rise to the surface and break= boils at 212 F Simmering- Bubbles in the liquid rise gently and just begin to break the surface 186 to 210 F Steaming- placed in steamer basket that fits inside a saucepan. Steam is created by a small amount of boiling water in the bottom in contact with the food. Covered to trap steam. Pressure cooking- cooks food in steam under pressure. Faster than other methods Dry-heat Methods Roasting- cooking large, tender cuts of meat or poultry Baking- used with foods such as breads, cookies, vegetables and casseroles, although some meat, poultry, and fish preparations are also baked. Broiling- refers to cooking food under direct heat… cooks quickly! Pan Broiling- range-top method such as hamburgers, tender cuts of steak and some cuts of pork Frying Sautéing- means to brown or cook foods in a skillet with a small amount of fat. This method is often used for chopped vegetables, such as onions and peppers and small pieces of meat and fish. Pan-frying- Similar to sautéing, but usually involves larger pieces of meat, poultry or fish. Can be used to brown meat before cooking it in moist heat. Deep-fat frying- “French-frying” Food is immersed in hot fat and cooked until done. This method is used for tender foods such as veggies, some breads such as doughnuts. Combination Methods Braising- combines browning food (frying) with a long period of simmering to tenderize the food and enhance the flavor. Stir Frying- combines frying and moistheat cooking. In this method, small pieces of food are fried quickly in a small amount of oil at high heat.