Overview of Chapter 11

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Chapter 11: Physical Development
in Middle Childhood
MODULES
11.1 Growth of the Body
11.2 Motor Development
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11-1
Middle childhood: the period of
development between the ages
of 7 and 11.
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11.1 Growth of the Body
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Recognize how much children grow in middle
childhood.
Describe the nutritional needs of elementary
school children and the best ways to approach
malnutrition and obesity.
State when children’s primary teeth begin to
come in.
Identify the vision problems common in
school-age children.
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Physical Growth
Growth continues at steady pace from the
preschool years.
Boys and girls about the same size most of these
years until girls enter puberty in late elementary
school.
Ethnic differences are evident in children’s growth.
Some short children may receive growth
hormones, but this has negative effects.
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Average Growth in SchoolAge Children
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Nutrition
School-age children need to eat more
than preschoolers .
Children need to eat breakfast before
school.
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11-6
Insert The Child Hunger and Education
Program table
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Obesity
Obesity: the physical state of being 20
percent over ideal body weight, given a
child’s age and height.
Obesity affects self-esteem depending
on the age and gender of the child.
Parents need to be involved in the
treatment of juvenile obesity.
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11-8
Obesity,Lifestyle and Genetics
Warning to Couch Potatoes
Heredity may also help set basal
metabolic rate.
Television advertising of tasty but
fattening foods.
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Tooth Development
Beginning at 5 or 6 years, loss of primary
teeth occurs at a rate of 4 teeth per year.
Fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water
helps prevent tooth decay.
Malocclusion can be corrected by
braces.
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11-10
Vision and Hearing
Growth of eustachian tube helps reduce
incidence of ear infections (otitis media).
Myopia occurs in approximately 25% of
school-age children.
Myopia usually emerges between 8 and 12
years.
Both heredity and environment contribute to
myopia.
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11.2 Motor Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Describe how motor skills improve during the
elementary school years and whether boys and girls
differ in their motor skills.
Identify whether Canadian children are physically fit.
Discuss the benefits of participating in sports and
the optimal circumstances for children to participate.
Understand the kinds of accidents common in
school-age children and how can they be
prevented.
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Development of Motor Skills
Improved motor skill due to increased size and
strength (e.g., at 11 years can throw ball 3
times farther than at 6 years).
Important role for the cerebellum as mediating
between children’s motor movements, sensory
perception and the precise timing necessary to
carry out an activity such as kicking a ball.
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Gender Differences in
Motor Skill
Girls excel in fine motor skills and gross motor
skills that require balance and flexibility.
Boys excel in gross motor skills that require
strength.
Many gender differences due to attitudes about
girls’ sports participation and physical fitness.
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Changing Motor Skills
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Physical Fitness
51% of Canadian children are inactive.
Many elementary schools in Canada do not
include physical activity into the daily
routine.
Families can encourage fitness by going for
a walk together.
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Participating in Sports
Sports help children be physically fit, teach
cognitive and social skills.
Coaches should be positive and have realistic
expectations.
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Accidents
Because children in the middle years are
more mobile and more independent,
they’re at greater risk for injury than
preschool children.
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Accidents
Unintentional falls, car accidents (as passenger or
pedestrian) and bike accidents are the most common
causes of injury and death in persons under 20 years
of age.
Parents can help by being good role models (seat
belts, bike helmets) and by being realistic about child’s
abilities.
Safety often the focus of community and school
programs.
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Conclusions
Physical growth enables advances in motor control.
Fine motor skills improve as a result of greater
dexterity.
In effective programs for treating obesity, children and
parents set eating and exercise goals and monitor
progress towards these goals.
Team sports are a good source of exercise and they
promote motor development.
Parents can help protect their children from accidents
by being good role models, by insisting that their
children use protective devices, and by not
overestimating their children’s skills.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
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