Activator Read the Mark Twain excerpt from his famous book, The Gilded Age (1873). Respond: Why has Harry Brierly come to pay a visit to Colonial Sellers? What is Colonial Sellers’ response to Mr. Brierly? How does this story symbolize the relationship between workers, bosses, big business and government during the Gilded Age? Post Civil War Economic and Social Developments, 1860 - 1890 Chapters 23 - 26 Twain’s “Gilded Age” (1873) Gilded—appears gold on the outside but is in fact made of a cheaper metal. Symbolizes an era of fabulous wealth, technological innovation, the growth of big business, population growth and the territorial expansion of the United States… …However, these “golden” achievements benefitted a small minority of Americans and concealed serious social, political and economic problems of the majority. Road map ~10 days Test and DBQ analysis Independent note taking (you choose the form) Online lectures, quizzes Corruption, Graft and Patronage Corruption—dishonest of fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery Graft—practices, especially bribery, used to secure illicit gains in politics or business; corruption Patronage—the power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges Jobs or favors for votes Connection: Jackson, “spoils system”—democratic? Civil Service Reform—meritocracy (what you know rather than who you know) Gilded Age Party System “Shaky equilibrium”: Majority party in the House switched six times in eleven sessions 1869-1891; only one Democratic President Few economic issues separated parties (agreed on lowering the tariff, civil service reform, currency question) Ferociously competitive: fierce loyalty, high turnout, voting along party lines Sharp ethnic differences: Republicans--Puritan (Anglo-Saxon) Democrats—Lutheran and Catholic (German, Irish) Geographic divisions “Solid Democratic South” and Northern industrial cities Republicans strong in Midwest, rural and small-town Northeast, freedmen in South, Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) Split in Republican Party “Stalwarts” Led by “Boss” Roscoe Conkling, believed in patronage “Half-breeds” Led by James G. Blaine, wanted Civil Service Reform Doc Analysis In groups of 3 Analyze Docs A – C and answer corresponding questions “An Era of Good Stealings” James “Jim” Fisk and Jay Gould’s “gold rush” “Black Friday” 1869 attempt to control the gold market Congressional probe: Grant guilty of nothing but stupidity Credit Mobilier (1872): Union Pacific insiders formed a construction company, hired themselves at inflated prices Bribed Congressmen with stock; Grant’s VP accepted payments Whiskey Ring: Stole excise-tax revenues from Treasury department Grant’s private secretary was involved Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall Stole over $200 million Thomas Nast contributed to capture Doc Analysis Groups of 3 Doc D Compromise of 1877 Settled the disputed presidential election of 1876 (Hayes-R, Tilden-D) Tilden won popular vote, had 184/185 necessary electoral votes with 20 electoral votes disputed in four states. Special Electoral Commission appointed—8 R vs. 7 D. In an informal, “backroom deal” Hayes (R) is elected by special Electoral Commission, 8-7. Democrats are promised: Reconstruction Ends – 5 militarized zones abolished and military is withdrawn from LA, SC Patronage, TCRR construction through Texas (never materializes) Processing Why did politics of the Gilded Age seemingly sink to such a low level? Did the Gilded Age Party System have any strengths to compensate for its weaknesses? Freedmen How did the Compromise of 1877 effect freedmen in the South? What were the short- and long-term results of the “Jim Crow” system in the South? Why was the sharecropping system so hard to overcome? Were blacks worse off or better off after the Civil War? Immigrants How was the Chinese immigrant experience similar to that of such European groups as the Irish, and how was it different? What effect did the racial distinctiveness of the Chinese have on their experiences in America? What were the great problems the Chinese-Americans experienced? How did they attempt to overcome them? Farmers To what extent were the Populists politically “radical”? Why was the political system so slow to respond to the economic grievances of farmers and workers, especially during the hard economic times of the 1890’s? Gov & Business During this time period, what was the government’s political philosophy with regard to the regulation and operation of business? How did the relationship between government and business change with the passing of the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1833? How did the Depression of 1893 affect the relationship between government and business? Labor How did the Panic of 1873 and the Depression of 1893 affect Southern and Western farmers? How did the Panic of 1873 affect Northern factory-workers and urban laborers? Throughout the 1880’s – 1890’s, was labor effective at winning union recognition, higher wages and better working conditions? Why or why not?