Non-verbal Communication

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Chapter 6:
Nonverbal
Communication
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1
Quotable Quote
“He that has eyes to see and ears to
hear may convince himself that no
mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are
silent, he chatters with his finger tips;
betrayal oozes out of him at every
pore.”
Sigmund Freud
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2
Nonverbal Communication
Definition
Message components other than words
that generate meaning
 60-70 percent of meaning may be nonverbal
 Nonverbal communication is multidimensional
 Nonverbal communication Includes physical
appearance, body movement, facial expressions,
touch, vocal characteristics, vocal tone, etc.
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3
Nonverbal Communication Is
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4
Match the Nonverbal Quality
Nonverbal is:
A. Convincing
B. Continuous
C. Less
Structured
D. Highly
Contextual
E. Learned
Informally
Examples:
__ 1. I took off my hat because
everyone else did.
__2. I knew she was very upset
because she cried.
__3. How did he know I didn’t like
the idea; I never said a word.
__4. I though the wink meant she
agreed with me.
__5. I guess it was wrong to laugh
during the film’s death scene.
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5
Nonverbal Behavior Can . . .
– Repeat verbal messages
• Visually repeat a verbal message
– Complement verbal messages
• Consistent with the verbal message
– Accent verbal messages
• Emphasize important elements in a
message by highlighting its focus or
emotional content
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6
Nonverbal Behavior Can . . .
- Regulate verbal messages
• Manage the flow of a conversation
- Substitute for verbal messages
• Takes the place of verbal
language
- Contradict verbal messages
• Conflicts with the meaning of
spoken words
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7
PowerPoint Quiz
When you wave hello or goodbye to
someone, you are using nonverbal
communication to . . .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
repeat a verbal message.
complement a verbal message.
accent a verbal message.
regulate a verbal message.
substitute for a verbal message.
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8
Expectancy
Violation Theory
Your expectations about nonverbal behavior
affect how you interact with others and how
you interpret the meaning of nonverbal
messages.
Examples of Expectancy Violation
• Not facing forward in a crowded elevator
• _____________________________________
• _____________________________________
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9
Types of Nonverbal
Communication
Nonverbal Communication
Physical
Appearance
Vocal
Expression
Time
Body
Movement
Silence
Attractiveness
Gestures
Space
Environment
Eye Behavior
Distance
Clothing &
Accessories
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10
Physical Appearance
Provide examples of how physical
appearance affects communication
• Attractiveness: _________________________
_______________________________________
• Clothing and Accessories: ______________
• Hair: __________________________________
• Tattoos and Body Piercings: ____________
_______________________________________
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11
Tattoos and Body
Piercings
• Many people have negative perceptions of
employees who display tattoos or body
piercings at work.
• Most employees with tattoos or body
piercings conceal them on the job.
• BUT . . . 36 percent of 18-29 year olds
now have tattoos—making them middle
class consumer items rather than acts of
rebellion.
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12
Gesture Examples
Types
Emblems
Examples
1. Making the okay sign
2. Expresses the same meaning as
a word in a particular culture
Illustrators
1. Holding up two fingers and saying
“She called twice”
2. Used with a verbal message that
would lack meaning without the words
Adaptors
1. Pounding your first in anger
2. Habitual gestures that help
manage and express emotions
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13
Types of Gestures
Which type of gesture has
the following characteristics?
A. Has the same meaning
as a word?
B. Used with a verbal
message that would lack
meaning without the
word?
C. Habitual action that helps
manage and express
emotions?
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14
Facial Expressions
• We can produce more than 1,000 different
facial expressions.
• Facial expressions allow non-speakers to
contribute to conversations.
• Lack of eye contact may be seen as
rudeness, nervousness, or dishonesty.
• Eye contact norms are culturally
determined.
• Eye contact influences interaction.
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15
Adapting Facial
Expressions
• Masking: Conceals • Intensification:
true emotions with
Exaggerates facial
false facial
expressions
Example: __________
expressions
Example: __________
• Neutralization:
Shows no emotion
• Deintensification:
Reduces emotional
facial expressions
Example: __________
Example: __________
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16
Eye Behavior
Eye contact can . . .
•
•
•
•
aid comprehension.
signify status or leadership.
express emotion.
indicate a willingness to communicate.
Fill in the Blank:
When we try to understand what someone is
saying, most of us will look at a speaker more
than _____ percent of the time.
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17
Vocal Expressiveness
• Volume – refers to the loudness of your
voice
• Pitch- refers to how high or low your
voice sounds
• Word Stress – refers to the “degree of
prominence given to a syllable within a
word or words within a phrase.”
Give three different meanings to each sentence
by stressing the word in italics:
– I was born in New Jersey.
– I was born in New Jersey.
– I was born in New Jersey.
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18
The Dark Side of
Nonverbal Behavior
• Each year, approximately 1.5 million
women and 800,000 men are victims of
violence from an intimate partner.
• Women hit men as often as men hit
women.
• Each year, 15% of homicides in the
workplace are committed by co-workers.
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19
Territoriality
Territoriality
The sense of personal ownership that is
attached to a particular space
Examples
• Your usual seat in a classroom or meeting
room
• Marking your territory with objects (purse,
book, coat, food)
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20
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21
Improve Your
Nonverbal Communication
• Be Other-Oriented: Give serious
attention to, concern for, and interest in
other communicators.
• Use Immediacy Strategies: Be open
and approachable.
– Use direct eye contact
– Use natural body movements and vocal variety
– Maintain closer physical distance
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