Happy Tuesday! Please read through this power point and take notes in the packet you were given at the beginning of class. If you don’t finish this, it is homework. Power Point is on the website OR upload this presentation to your Google Docs. You will need to understand this information for the work we are doing this week. You will have a test on this information Monday, April 14 so ask questions if you are confused. You will need to be in Slide Show mode to view any links and might want to use your headphones if you have some with you. Otherwise, just play it on low volume. We will begin reading The Importance of Being Earnest tomorrow. You will have homework every night. If you are going to be gone, see me for the play and your homework. Otherwise check the website for more information. Have fun and get to work! Satire The Mace and Rapier What is Satire? Satire is a weapon used to ridicule to attack the vices and follies they see in human behavior. Usually states or implies some idea of what should be the correct behavior or thought. Goal of satire: self-examination and change foolish ways. In written satire, the pen can be a mace – hacking and bashing the victims to smithereens – or a rapier – delicately piercing the target. DEFINITION OF “SATIRE” The word satire comes from the Latin satura meaning a dish filled with mixed fruits. This was the usual dessert tray after a banquet, and an early meaning for the word was “to be well fed” as seen in such cognates as sated, saturated, and satisfied. Questions for Satire What does the satire ridicule? What are its targets? What does the satire suggest is preferable to whatever is criticized? What techniques does the satirist use to convey his or her ridicule? To what extent is the satirist justified in attacking his target? How successful is the satire? Distance from Satirical Target To be effective, writers or performers must have a detachment from their target. Henry Rule confessed, “In truth I don’t ever seem to be in a good enough humor with anything to satirize it; no, I want to stand up before it and curse it, and foam at the mouth—or take a club and pound it to rags and pulp” (Nilsen & Nilsen 259). Satire vs. Gallows Humor Satirists may use their humor to inspire reform and change, or they may use it to promote the status quo. Satire MUST HAVE A TARGET If the creators of satire don’t have a reform or a solution in mind but are simply holding up an aspect of the world as ridiculous, then they are creating irony or gallows humor rather than satire. Gallows Humor? Humor from stressful situations, i.e., death at the gallows. Horatian VS. Juvenalian Satire Gentle and humorous satire is called “Horatian Satire ” after the writing style of the Roman poet Horace. Heavy or biting satire called “Juvenalian Satire” after the Roman poet Juvenal. For Example One of the characteristics of Horatian satire is that it includes a higher percentage of humor. Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels is a Horatian Satire. It contains humorous adventures often read by children. “A Modest Proposal” is Juvenalian Satire with its scathing criticism of overpopulation and persecution of the Irish. Satire Techniques Naïve speaker — doesn’t understand the implications of his narration Praise but mean the opposite (criticize) – this is an example of irony Say one thing but means the opposite (sarcasm) Uses rhetorical questions — The question seems to suggest one answer, but the reader is supposed to disagree with the implication Understate — minimize the issue to make people realize its importance; treat a serious concern as unimportant or trivial Exaggerate/Hyperbole – blow the issue out of proportion to make people focus on it; take a trivial concern or situation seriously Types of Satire Cartoons and art Exaggeration and caricature Irony Symbolism Speaker Parody Reversal Cartoons and Art Lampoon or parody aspects of society or practices Example: In the example to the right, what is being criticized? How does the cartoon help make a point? Cartoons and Art Is this just “funny”? Or is it making a statement? What techniques does the satirist use? Exaggeration Focuses on one or two elements of a situation Extends them beyond reality or out of proportion to everything else Consider the following… what is being exaggerated? Caricature Distorts one or two elements of appearance, usually for humorous effect. Gentle form of exaggeration (usually) Why is caricature 1 NOT satirical and caricature 2 is? Caricature 1 Caricature 2 Burlesque Ridiculous exaggeration of language. Used for comic effect – the language used in a situation is so absurd as to make it funny. Example: In the following clip, how do we expect the characters to sound? What does the change do? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CDcjHVG2 Kg Irony Do I really need to explain this? Incongruity: presents things that are out of place or are absurd in relation to its surroundings Example: But why is this satire? What does it target? Why is this song ironic? Listen to the lyrics and then compare it to the music played along with it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ta_iKeH4tsg&safe=active Who is the target? Why is this satire? Symbolism Use concrete symbols to represent abstract characteristics and conditions Sometimes context-specific Example: What is the effect of symbolism for this satire? The Speaker in Satire the use of a speaker as a stand-in for the writer/satirist to offer criticism: Sometimes very angry voices making direct attacks. Sometimes evil men and women confessing their own sins proudly. Sometimes reveal their own folly without intending to. Diatribe – direct, angry attack in the hope of eliminating what the satirist regards as undesirable conditions, attitudes, and behavior. Parody Imitates the style of a particular work or writer Style is crucial – HOW the satire is done… Examples: Airplane! or The Key of Awesome on youtube. What is being parodied and why? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EyBwZeoxISk Parody of Fine Art Is this offensive? If so, why? Reversal Presents the opposite of the normal order… Order of events or Expectation Dessert first, then main course. The princess saving Prince Charming Hierarchal order When a child runs the household and the parent is treated like a child.