LESSON 3 PAD190

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PAD190
PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
LESSON 3
THEORIES OF PUBLIC
ORGANIZATION
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS LESSON
After attended this lecture student should be
able to:1. Define the concept of bureaucracy.
2. Explain the Max Weber's theory of
bureaucracy
3. Explain the nature of bureaucratic
organization.
4. Explain strengths and limitations of
bureaucratic organization.
5. Explain publid administration as a model
of bureaucracy.
INTRODUCTION
The study on the on the theories of
public organization is focus on
• the theory of bureaucracy as the foundation
for the establishment of public organization.
• The nature and characteristics of bureaucratic
organization.
• The strengths and limitations of bureaucratic
organization.
WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY
• the word "bureaucracy" itself stems from the
word "bureau", used from the early 18th
century in Western Europe not just to refer to
a writing desk, but to an office, i.e., a
workplace, where officials worked.
• A bureaucracy traditionally does not create
policy but, rather, enacts it. Law, policy, and
regulation normally originates from a
leadership, which creates the bureaucracy to
put them into practice.
DEFINITION
• Definition: A bureaucracy is a form of
organization in which officeholders have
defined positions and (usually) titles. Formal
rules specify the duties of the officeholders.
Personal distinctions are usually discouraged
by the rules.
• Bureaucracy is the collective organizational,
procedures, protocols, and set of regulations
in place to manage activity, usually in large
organizations and government.
WHO INTRODUCED THE CONCEPT
• KALR MARX (1818 –1883) - Marx's theory,
bureaucracy rarely creates new wealth by
itself, but rather controls, co-ordinates and
governs the production, distribution and
consumption of wealth. The bureaucracy as a
social stratum derives its income from the
appropriation of part of the social surplus
product of human labor. Wealth is
appropriated by the bureaucracy by law
through fees, taxes, levies, tributes, licensing
etc.
• MAX WEBER (1864 –1920) - A formal, hierarchical
organization with many levels in which tasks,
responsibilities, and authority are delegated among
individuals, offices, or departments, held together by
a central administration. According to many
sociologists and anthropologists, the development of
bureaucratic organizations is necessary for the
emergence of any modern civilization.
• According to Weber, the attributes of modern
bureaucracy include its impersonality, concentration
of the means of administration, a leveling effect on
social and economic differences and implementation
of a system of authority that is practically
indestructible.
THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF
BUREAUCRACY
• Clear hierarchy of authority.
• Rigid division of labour.
• Written and inflexible rules, regulations and
procedures.
• Impersonal relationship.
• Once instituted, bureaucracies are difficult to
dislodge or change.
TYPES OF BUREAUCRACY
• Representative
Bureaucracy – acts as
representative of
citizens. The
establishment of
bureaucracy based on
citizens ratio (race and
ethnicity) to ensure the
interests of diverse
groups are represented
in policy formulation
and implementation
processes.
• Neutral Bureaucracy Bureaucrats are
supposed to administer
the rules without bias.
No one should be given
preferential treatment.
• Political neutrality of
civil service.
• Work based on policy,
rules and regulations
An application of these principles
has created a new form of
bureaucratic organization and
become an ideal type of
organization in the government
(Max Weber).
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF
BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATION
1. official business is conducted on a continuous basis
2. official business is conducted with strict accordance
to the following rules:
 the duty of each official to do certain types of
work is delimited in terms of impersonal criteria
 the official is given the authority necessary to
carry out his assigned functions
 the means of coercion at his disposal are strictly
limited and conditions of their use strictly
defined .
3. every official's responsibilities and authority
are part of a vertical hierarchy of authority,
with respective rights of supervision and
appeal
4. officials do not own the resources necessary
for the performance of their assigned
functions but are accountable for their use of
these resources
5. official and private business and income are
strictly separated
6. offices cannot be appropriated by their
incumbents (inherited, sold, etc.)
7. official business is conducted on the basis of
written documents.
A bureaucratic official:
• is personally free and appointed to his position on
the basis of conduct .
• exercises the authority delegated to him in
accordance with impersonal rules, and his or her
loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution
of his official duties .
• appointment and job placement are dependent upon
his or her technical qualifications .
• administrative work is a full-time occupation .
• work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of
advancement in a lifetime career .
THE STRENGTHS OF BUREAUCRACY
• Prevent misused or abused of power
• Rationalized and formalized decision – making
a right decision based on facts.
• Clear and written records - formality
• Specialization of works – increase productivity.
• Increase accountability and integrity – more
responsible to the job.
• Equal access to government services - Fair and
just treatment regardless of political ideology,
race or ethnicity.
THE CRITICS AND LIMITATIONS OF
BUREAUCRACY
• Overspecialization – making individual officials not
aware of larger consequences of their actions;
• Rigidity and inertia of procedures - making decisionmaking slow or even impossible when facing some
unusual case, and similarly delaying change,
evolution and adaptation of old procedures to new
circumstances;
• A phenomenon of group thinking - zealotry, loyalty
and lack of critical thinking regarding the
organization which is perfect and always correct by
definition, making the organization unable to change
and realize its own mistakes and limitations;
• Disregard for dissenting opinions - even when such
views suit the available data better than the opinion
of the majority;
• As bureaucracy creates more and more rules and
procedures - their complexity rises and coordination
diminishes, facilitating creation of contradictory and
recursive rules, as described by the saying "the
bureaucracy is expanding to meet the needs of the
expanding bureaucracy".
• Not allowing people to use common sense - as
everything must be as is written by the law.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS THE
MODEL OF BUREAUCRACY
• Theory of bureaucracy has created an
institution of public organization.
• Public administration denotes the institutions
of public bureaucracy within a state and
governed by bureaucratic officials.
• A bureaucrat is a member of public
organization working to execute public policy.
• All Government servants are bureaucrats in
public administration. Their position is subject
to law, rules, regulations and procedures.
TUTORIAL DISCUSSION
•
•
•
•
What is bureaucracy?
What are the principles of bureaucracy?
What is bureaucratic organization?
What are the characteristics of bureaucratic
organization?
• What are the strengths and limitations of
bureaucratic organization.
• How public organization denotes the
institutions of bureaucratic organization?
THAT ALL FOR TODAY
SEE YOU AGAIN NEXT LECTURE
LESSON 4
“GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIVE
MECHINERY”
THANK YOU