IV4 21r

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IMPROVING
VOCABULARY SKILLS
Fourth Edition
Sherrie L. Nist
© 2010 Townsend Press
Unit Four: Chapter 21
• credible
• interim
• cursory
• latent
• designate
• secular
• deviate
• shun
• improvise
• simulate
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 credible
– adjective
• Some jurors doubted the witness’s testimony, but most of them
found it credible.
• As credible as Mr. Bower’s resumé may seem, I don’t think you
should hire him without checking his references.
Credible means
A. long.
B. boring.
C. believable.
“If you really want the keys to the car, you’ll
have to come up with a more credible story than
that you want to buy your mother a present!”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 credible
– adjective
• Some jurors doubted the witness’s testimony, but most of them
found it credible.
• As credible as Mr. Bower’s resumé may seem, I don’t think you
should hire him without checking his references.
Credible means
A. long.
B. boring.
C. believable.
In contrast with the few jurors who
doubted the testimony, most jurors
found it believable. In spite of how
“If you really want the keys to the car, you’ll
have to come up with a more credible story than believable Mr. Bower’s resumé seems,
that you want to buy your mother a present!” his references should be checked.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 cursory
– adjective
• Most people do only a cursory job of brushing their teeth. To
avoid cavities, however, you must brush for at least two minutes.
• Because James had to work late, he had only enough time to give
his apartment a cursory cleaning before his parents arrived.
Cursory means
A. careful.
B. consistent.
C. quick.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 cursory
– adjective
• Most people do only a cursory job of brushing their teeth. To
avoid cavities, however, you must brush for at least two minutes.
• Because James had to work late, he had only enough time to give
his apartment a cursory cleaning before his parents arrived.
Cursory means
A. careful.
B. consistent.
C. quick.
In contrast with brushing your teeth for two minutes or more, most
people do only a quick job. In the second item, the words only
enough time suggest that cursory means “quick.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 designate
– verb
• At the party, Isabel drank soda rather than beer because her
friends had designated her as the driver for the trip home.
• A coworker was designated to present Vonnie with the
“Employee of the Year” award at the company banquet.
Designate means
A. to forbid.
B. to assign.
C. to hire.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 designate
– verb
• At the party, Isabel drank soda rather than beer because her
friends had designated her as the driver for the trip home.
• A coworker was designated to present Vonnie with the
“Employee of the Year” award at the company banquet.
Designate means
A. to forbid.
B. to assign.
C. to hire.
Isabel drank only soda because her friends had assigned her the job
of driving them home. A coworker was assigned or appointed to the
task of presenting the award to Vonnie.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 deviate
– verb
• Having taken the wrong exit off the highway, we had to deviate
somewhat from the route marked on the map.
• If you deviate even a little from the directions when you write
your paper, you might hurt your grade.
Deviate means
A. to follow.
B. to depart.
C. to gain.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 deviate
– verb
• Having taken the wrong exit off the highway, we had to deviate
somewhat from the route marked on the map.
• If you deviate even a little from the directions when you write
your paper, you might hurt your grade.
Deviate means
A. to follow.
B. to depart.
C. to gain.
If they took the wrong exit off the highway, they would have to depart
from the route marked on the map. You might get a lower grade if you
depart from the instructor’s directions.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 improvise
– verb
• Nadia can improvise accompaniments on the piano to songs
she’s never heard before. How can she play so well without any
preparation or sheet music?
• When I rang the doorbell, I wasn’t expecting Ellen’s father to
come to the door, so I had to quickly improvise an explanation
for my visit.
Improvise means
A. to remember.
B. to keep away from.
C. to make up.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 improvise
– verb
• Nadia can improvise accompaniments on the piano to songs
she’s never heard before. How can she play so well without any
preparation or sheet music?
• When I rang the doorbell, I wasn’t expecting Ellen’s father to
come to the door, so I had to quickly improvise an explanation
for my visit.
Improvise means
A. to remember.
B. to keep away from.
C. to make up.
If Nadia plays well without preparation or sheet music, she must be
able to make up accompaniments. In the second item, the words
wasn’t expecting suggest that improvise means “to make up.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 interim
– noun
• Cassie hadn’t seen her nephews for years. In the interim, they
had grown from troubled boys into serious young men.
• After the secretary left, it took two weeks for her replacement to
arrive at the real-estate office. In the interim, the agents had to
do their own typing.
Interim means
A. the time between.
B. the future.
C. the place.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 interim
– noun
• Cassie hadn’t seen her nephews for years. In the interim, they
had grown from troubled boys into serious young men.
• After the secretary left, it took two weeks for her replacement to
arrive at the real-estate office. In the interim, the agents had to
do their own typing.
Interim means
A. the time between.
B. the future.
C. the place.
If Cassie hadn’t seen her nephews for years, they would have changed
in the time between when she last saw them and now. In the second
item, two weeks is the time between the former secretary leaving and
the replacement arriving.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 latent
– adjective
• Certain viruses, such as the one for AIDS, can be latent in the
body for years before symptoms appear.
• After he retired, my father discovered his latent artistic talent. He
took up oil painting and now sells much of his work.
Latent means
A. partial.
B. inactive.
C. absent.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 latent
– adjective
• Certain viruses, such as the one for AIDS, can be latent in the
body for years before symptoms appear.
• After he retired, my father discovered his latent artistic talent. He
took up oil painting and now sells much of his work.
Latent means
A. partial.
B. inactive.
C. absent.
If it is years before symptoms appear, the viruses must be inactive
during that time. If the father didn’t take up oil painting until he
retired, the talent was inactive during his working years.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 secular
– adjective
• While our government is secular, some countries are governed
according to religious laws.
• Devoting himself to a deeply religious life, the Hindu holy man
denied himself most secular pleasures.
Secular means
A. spiritual.
B. reliable.
C. nonreligious.
A former church now in secular
use as an apartment building
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 secular
– adjective
• While our government is secular, some countries are governed
according to religious laws.
• Devoting himself to a deeply religious life, the Hindu holy man
denied himself most secular pleasures.
Secular means
A. spiritual.
B. reliable.
C. nonreligious.
A former church now in secular
use as an apartment building
In contrast with countries governed
according to religious laws, our government
is nonreligious. If the Hindu holy man
devoted himself to a deeply religious life,
he would deny himself nonreligious
pleasures.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 shun
– verb
• I used to see a lot of Tracy, but since our argument, she shuns me
whenever possible.
• The Amish live without many modern conveniences. For
example, they shun automobiles and electric lights.
Shun means
A. to keep away from.
B. to recognize.
C. to observe.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 shun
– verb
• I used to see a lot of Tracy, but since our argument, she shuns me
whenever possible.
• The Amish live without many modern conveniences. For
example, they shun automobiles and electric lights.
Shun means
A. to keep away from.
B. to recognize.
C. to observe.
In contrast with seeing a lot of Tracy before the argument, Tracy
now keeps away from the speaker. If the Amish live without modern
conveniences, they must keep away from automobiles and electric
lights.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 simulate
– verb
• The tan plastic of our kitchen table, with its wood-grain design,
simulates oak.
• Equipment that simulates a human heart can keep someone alive
only for a short time, until an actual heart can be substituted.
Simulate means
A. to contrast with.
B. to imitate.
C. to be made of.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 simulate
– verb
• The tan plastic of our kitchen table, with its wood-grain design,
simulates oak.
• Equipment that simulates a human heart can keep someone alive
only for a short time, until an actual heart can be substituted.
Simulate means
A. to contrast with.
B. to imitate.
C. to be made of.
The tan plastic with wood-grain design would imitate oak. Equipment
would be able only to imitate the activity of an actual heart.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
1. Nikki’s _________ ability in basketball became apparent
when she turned 12. Her movements had once been
clumsy, but now they were smooth and controlled.
2. Presidents __________ as Supreme Court justices people
who share their political views.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
1. Nikki’s _________
latent ability in basketball became apparent
when she turned 12. Her movements had once been
clumsy, but now they were smooth and controlled.
Nikki’s ability was hidden by her clumsy movements when she was young.
2. Presidents __________
designate as Supreme Court justices people
who share their political views.
Presidents would appoint Supreme Court justices who share their views.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
3. I hear Andy dropped out of college. What caused him to
__________ from his plan of getting his degree?
4. Because his story about a flat tire sounded __________, my
parents allowed the stranger to use our telephone.
5. In the __________ between applying to college and getting
the letter of acceptance, I spent a lot of time worrying.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
3. I hear Andy dropped out of college. What caused him to
__________
deviate from his plan of getting his degree?
If Andy’s plan was to get his degree but he dropped out, he
departed from his plan.
4. Because his story about a flat tire sounded __________,
my
credible
parents allowed the stranger to use our telephone.
The parents would allow the stranger to use the phone if his
story sounded believable.
5. In the __________
interim between applying to college and getting
the letter of acceptance, I spent a lot of time worrying.
A period of time passes between sending one’s college application
and getting the letter of acceptance.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
6. Margo couldn’t identify the driver of the car that had hit
her. She’d given him only a(n) _______ glance at the time
of the accident.
7. The chorus is known for its gospel music, but it also
performs _________ compositions, including show tunes.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
6. Margo couldn’t identify the driver of the car that had hit
her. She’d given him only acursory
__________ glance at the time
of the accident.
If Margo couldn’t identify him, she must have given only a quick glance.
7. The chorus is known for its gospel music, but it also
performs _________
secular compositions, including show tunes.
Show tunes are an example of nonreligious musical compositions.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
8. When the actor forgot his lines, he was forced to _________
some dialog until the stage manager whispered to him from
offstage.
9. Tony found the hardest part of overcoming his addiction
was learning to __________ people and places that would
tempt him to use drugs again.
10. The zoo’s exhibits _________ the natural environments of
animals. The orangutans, for example, live in a space that
looks much like an Asian rain forest.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. credible
B. cursory
C. designate
D. deviate
E. improvise
F. interim
G. latent
H. secular
I. shun
J. simulate
8. When the actor forgot his lines, he was forced to _________
improvise
some dialog until the stage manager whispered to him from
offstage.
If the actor forgot his lines, he would have to invent some dialogue.
9. Tony found the hardest part of overcoming his addiction
was learning to __________
people and places that would
shun
tempt him to use drugs again.
Tony would have to learn to avoid places that would tempt him.
10. The zoo’s exhibits _________
simulate the natural environments of
animals. The orangutans, for example, live in a space that
looks much like an Asian rain forest.
The item gives an example of an exhibit that imitates the orangutans’
natural environment.
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