System Software

advertisement
第四章
電腦軟體
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
學習目標
1. Describe several important trends occurring in
computer software.
指出電腦軟體的重要發展趨勢。
2. Give examples of several major types of application
and system software.
舉出應用軟體與系統軟體的數種主要類型。
3. Explain the purpose of several popular software
packages for end-user productivity and collaborative
computing.
說明數種能提升終端使用者生產力與
協同計算能力的常見軟體之目的。
P2
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
學習目標
4. Define and describe the functions of an operating
system.
描繪作業系統的功能。
5. Describe the main uses of computer programming
software, tools, and languages.
說明電腦程式設計軟體、工具與語言的主要應用情況。
P3
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
應用軟體:終端使用者的應用
Application Software:
End-user Applications
 What Is Software?
什麼是軟體?
Software is the general term for various kinds of programs
used to operate and manipulate computers and their
eripheral Devices.
 軟體是泛指用來執行及操作電腦與相關設備的不同
應用程式。
P4
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Wolf Peak International:
中小型企業應用軟體之成敗
Wolf Peak International: Failure and
Success in Application Software for
the Small to Medium Enterprise
1. What problems occurred when Wolf Peak upgraded
from QuickBooks to a new accounting software package?
How could these problems have been avoided?
當Wolf Peak 將QuickBooks 升級成新的會計套裝軟體後
,產生了哪些問題?這些問題後來又是如何避免的?
2. Why did SAP’s Business One prove to be a better
choice for Wolf Peak’s management than the new accounting
software? Give several examples to illustrate
your answer.
相對於新的會計軟體,為什麼SAP Business One
是Wolf Peak 較佳的選擇呢?請附上幾個例子來說明你的答案。
P5
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Wolf Peak International:
中小型企業應用軟體之成敗
Wolf Peak International: Failure and
Success in Application Software for
the Small to Medium Enterprise
3. Should most SMEs use an integrated business software
suite like SAP Business One instead of specialized accounting
and other business software packages? Why or
why not?
大部分的中小型企業是否都應該選擇整合
式企業軟體套件,而非專門的會計套裝軟
體或其他的企業套裝軟體?為什麼?
P6
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Types of Application & System
Software
4-7
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
電腦軟體概觀
P8
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
甲骨文的電子化企業套件
P9
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Components of Top Software Suites
4-10
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
套裝軟體與整合式套件
套裝軟體(software suites)最廣為使用
如Microsoft Office、Lotus SmartSuite、Corel
WordPerfect Office, 以及Sun StarOffice 都是
常見的生產力套裝軟體範例。
P11
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
瀏覽器
 微軟的
Internet Explorer
瀏覽器
 Netscape
P12
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
電子郵件、即時通訊軟體及網誌
P13
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
文書處理與桌上排版
P14
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
電子試算表軟體
P15
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
簡報圖形
P16
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
個人資訊管理Using a personal
information manager
P17
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
群組軟體Lotus Sametime
P18
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
一般用途應用程式
應用服務供應商(ASPs)
Salesforce.com
軟體授權Software Licensing
 The requirement for licensing does not disappear when use of the
software is obtained through an ASP. In this case, the license to
dispense use of the software is granted to the ASP by the various
software vendors, and in return, the ASP agrees to pay the
software vendor a royalty based on the number of user accounts to
which the ASP resells the rights.
當個人或公司購買軟體應用程式後,並沒有購買所
有權,更確切地說,他們是購買軟體的使用許可
證。
P19
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
系統軟體:電腦系統管理
System Software: Computer System Management
We can group system software into two
major categories
系統軟體區分成兩種主要類別:
System management programs
系統管理程式
System development programs
系統開發程式
P20
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
配電與執法的應用:
透過XML分享資料獲得之利益
Power Distribution and Law Enforcement: Reaping the
Benefits of Sharing Data Through XML
1. What is the business value of XML to the organizations
described in the case? How are they able to achieve
such large returns on investment?
根據上文,哪些是XML為組織帶來的企業價值?
它們要如何為企業帶來龐大的投資報酬?
2. What are other ways in which XML could be used by
organizations to create value and share data? Look for
examples involving for-profit organizations to gain a
more complete perspective on the issue.
公司還能用哪些方法透過XML創造價值並分享資料?
請尋找和營利組織相關的範例,以獲得對此議題更完整的看法。
P21
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
配電與執法的應用:
透過XML分享資料獲得之利益
Power Distribution and Law Enforcement: Reaping the
Benefits of Sharing Data Through XML
3. What seem to be important elements in the success
of projects relying on extensive use of XML across
organizations, and why? Research the concept of
metadata to inform your answer.
XML在組織間廣泛使用,並讓專案得以成功的
重要因素是什麼?請研究詮釋資料的概念並提
出你的答案。
P22
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Interface Between End Users and Computer
4-23
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
系統軟體:電腦系統管理
終端使用者應用程式間不可或缺的軟體
介面(software interface)
P24
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
作業系統
使用者介面(user interface)
指令式(command-driven)
選單式(menu-driven
圖形使用者介面(graphical user interface)
P25
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
作業系統
P26
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
作業系統
 資源管理(resource management)
 虛擬記憶體(virtual memory)
 檔案管理(file management)
 工作管理(task management)
 多工(multitasking)
 微軟Windows
 Windows NT(New Technology)作業系統
 Windows 2000 作業系統
 Widows XP
 Windows Server 2003
P27
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
作業系統
 UNIX
 Sun Microsystems Solaris
 IBM AIX
 Linux
 開放程式碼(open-source)
 免費分享軟體
 Red Hat
 Caldera
 SUSE Linux 等
 Mac OS X
P28
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
開放原始碼軟體
Open-source Software
 The basic idea behind open source is very simple: When
programmers can read, redistribute, and modify the source
code for a piece of software, the software evolves.
開放原始碼軟體(open-source software, OSS)基本想法
是很簡單的,當眾多程式設計人員可以讀取、重新分
配及修改原始碼時,軟體就會跟著進步。
People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs.
透過使用者改進、適應並修正錯誤。
OpenOffice.org 2
P29
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
其他系統管理程式
Other System Management Programs
系統管理軟體system management software
資料庫管理系統database management systems
網路管理程式network management programs
工具程式(utilities)
效能監視器(performance monitors)
安全監視器(security monitor)
應用伺服器(application servers)
中介軟體(middleware)
P30
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Other System Management
Programs
4-31
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
系統軟體的比較
P32
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Programming Languages
Examples of programming in each language
4-33
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
程式語言
Machine Languages
P34
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Object-Oriented Languages
Combines data elements
and the procedures that
will be performed upon
them into objects
E.g., data about a bank
account and the
procedures performed
on it, such as interest
calculations
4-35
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
程式語言
Machine Languages
Object-Oriented
Languages
物件導向語言
Visual Basic
C++
Java
P36
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
物件導向程式語言
Visual Basic 的物件導向程式撰寫環境
The Visual Basic object-oriented programming environment.
P37
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
網站語言與服務
Web Languages and Services
 網站語言與服務
 HTML(Hypertext Markup Language ,超文件標示語言)
 XML(eXtensible Markup Language ,延伸性標示語言)
HTML inserts control codes within a document at points you can
specify that create links ( hyperlinks ) to other parts of the document or
to other documents anywhere on the World Wide Web
• XML 透過將識別標籤或文意標籤嵌入網頁文件資料中,來描
述網頁內容的意義。
 Java
• 獨立運算平台
• Java applets
 J2EE(Java2 Enterprise Edition)
 微軟的 .Net 軟體開發平台
P38
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
J2EE versus .Net
4-39
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
程式語言
 Java2 企業版與微軟.Net 軟體開發平台的優點與缺點
P40
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
How Web Services Work
4-41
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
網站服務
P42
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
網站服務
Web Services
Web services promise to be the key software technology
for automating access to data and application functions
between a business and its trading partners.
網站服務讓企業與交易夥伴之間,
能自動存取資料與應用程式功能。
The XML language is one of the key technologies
that enable Web services to make applications
work between different computing platforms
XML語言是應用程式得以在不同運算平台間順利
運作的主要技術之一。
P43
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
網站服務
Web Services
Also important are UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and
Integration), the “yellow pages” directory of all Web services
and how to locate and use them,
通用描述探索與整合(Universal Description and Discovery
Integration, UDDI)也是一樣重要,它就像是電話簿的
「黃頁」目錄,列出所有的網站服務。
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), an XML-based protocol
Of specifications for connecting applications to the data that
they need.
簡易物件存取協定(Simple Object Access Protocol, SOAP)
則是以XML 為
基礎,為了連接各應用程式所制定的資料通訊協定。
P44
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
程式設計軟體
Programming Software
語言翻譯程式Language Translator Programs
組譯器(assembler)
編譯器(compiler)
直譯器(interpreter)
程式設計工具(programming tools)
• 圖形導向的程式編輯器
• 除錯器(debugger)
電腦輔助軟體工程(Computer-Aided
Software Engineering, CASE)
P45
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
程式設計軟體(續)
程式設計工具Using the graphical programming interface of
a Java programming tool,Forte for Java, by Sun Microsystems.
P46
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
本章總結
 Computer software consists of two major types of programs
電腦軟體分為兩大類別:
應用軟體application software
系統軟體system software
應用軟體分為兩大類別:
一般用途general purpose
特定用途application-specific categories
P47
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
本章總結(續)
系統軟體System Software
系統管理軟體system management programs
系統開發軟體system development programs
網路管理程式network management programs
資料庫管理程式database management systems
系統工具system utilities
P48
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
本章總結(續)
作業系統具備五項基本功能:
(1) a user interface for system and network communications
with users,
使用者與系統以及網路通訊間的介面。
(2) resource management for
managing the hardware resources of a computer system,
電腦系統硬體的資源管理。
(3) file management for managing files of data and programs,
資料檔案與程式檔案的管理。
(4) task management for managing the tasks a
computer must accomplish,
管理電腦必須完成的工作管理。
(5) utilities and other
functions that provide miscellaneous support services.
提供各種支援服務的工具與功能。
P49
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
本章總結(續)
 The five major levels of programming languages
程式語言的五種層級
機器語言machine languages
組合語言assembler languages
高階語言high-leve languages,
第四代語言fourth-generation languages
物件導向語言Objectoriented languages
P50
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
微軟等企業:
發展經營企業的軟體
Google, Microsoft, and Others:Transforming the Desktop with
Web Top Software Applications
1. Do you agree that Web top software will one day
replace suites of desktop applications? Why or why
not? Check out the features of a few of the Web top
products mentioned in the case on the Internet to
support your answer.
在資訊科技專業人士中流傳的一句玩笑話是:
「這個世界透過Windows來取得資料。」為
什麼微軟能夠掌握電腦及軟體市場網絡?請
拜訪微軟的網站,檢視其產品與服務的類別。
P51
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
微軟等企業:
發展經營企業的軟體
Google, Microsoft, and Others:Transforming the Desktop with
Web Top Software Applications
2. Will Microsoft succeed in dominating the Web top?
Why or why not? Visit the Web sites of Windows
Live, Office Live, and Google Apps and review their
products and services to support your answer.
與其他專門針對健康照護、零售等服務的
軟體供應商競爭,微軟會有多大的勝算呢?
請說明你的看法。
P52
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
微軟等企業:
發展經營企業的軟體
Google, Microsoft, and Others:Transforming the Desktop with
Web Top Software Applications
3. Should a small business invest its time and money in
acquiring and learning how to use some of the Web top
applications mentioned in this case? Defend your answer
based on your review of the Web top products from the
small developers, Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft.
你同意微軟與其他公司合作,一起開發特
定產業程式的策略嗎?身為微軟的開發夥伴,
有哪些優缺點,請說明你的看法。
P53
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2010
Download
Related flashcards

Programming constructs

28 cards

C software

30 cards

Create Flashcards