ALTHOUGH ‘Although’ is a subordinate conjunction. ‘Although’ is usually placed at the beginning of the clause. We use ‘although’ to add something rather surprising or unusual about what we are saying. Although they are poor, they are happy. Although it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat. THEREFORE ‘Therefore’ is a connecting adverb. It can be used instead of ‘so’ in formal English. ‘Therefore’ may be placed at the beginning and in the middle of a clause. We use ‘therefore’ to show that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the ideas expressed in the sentence. He did not study for the exam. Therefore he failed. It is hot. Therefore we turn on the fan. The bed is soft. Therefore we sleep comfortably. Fill in the blanks with ‘although’ or ‘therefore’. 1. People grow more bamboos. Therefore pandas have __________ enough food to eat. 2. People cut down a lot of Therefore monkeys trees. __________ lose their homes. Although 3. __________ some sharks look dangerous, they are not cruel. Although 4. __________ penguins have long wings, they cannot fly. Although __________ wild animals make unusual pets, we shouldn’t keep them in flats. Although __________these animals may be cute when they are young, they grow to be large and fierce. Moreover, many of these animals may become sad and ill when they are kept in small cages because they need large space to run and play. Therefore these animals are taken from their __________ owners to the Wild Animal Rescue Centre in Kadoorie Farm. Although most of the wild animals are released __________ back into the wild, they cannot find food for Therefore they have to stay at the themselves. __________ farm.