Ch. 29 - Critical and Evaluative Reading Made Easy

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ADVANCING
VOCABULARY SKILLS
Fourth Edition
Sherrie L. Nist
© 2010 Townsend Press
Unit Five: Chapter 29
• adroit
• platitude
• constituent
• promiscuous
• contention
• repudiate
• irreparable
spontaneous
•
• pinnacle
• stigma
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 adroit
– adjective
• Doris is adroit in any kind of discussion or debate. She’s very
skillful at getting others to see things her way.
• Adroit chess players can make it seem as if the opponent is
winning, when in fact he or she is about to lose in another move
or two.
Adroit means
A. impulsive.
B. expert.
C. not selective.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 adroit
– adjective
• Doris is adroit in any kind of discussion or debate. She’s very
skillful at getting others to see things her way.
• Adroit chess players can make it seem as if the opponent is
winning, when in fact he or she is about to lose in another move
or two.
Adroit means
A. impulsive.
B. expert.
C. not selective.
The words very skillful suggest that adroit means “expert.” It would
take an expert chess player to make the opponent seem to be winning
when, in fact, that opponent is about to lose.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 constituent
– noun
• Our senator genuinely wants to represent the citizens, so she
makes serious efforts to find out how her constituents feel about
important issues.
• Many of Councilman Hall’s constituents live in poverty, so one
way he helps those he represents is by working for programs to
assist the poor.
Constituent means
A. someone represented.
B. someone who speaks well.
C. an officeholder.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 constituent
– noun
• Our senator genuinely wants to represent the citizens, so she
makes serious efforts to find out how her constituents feel about
important issues.
• Many of Councilman Hall’s constituents live in poverty, so one
way he helps those he represents is by working for programs to
assist the poor.
Constituent means
A. someone represented.
B. someone who speaks well.
C. an officeholder.
The word represent the citizens suggest that constituent means
“someone represented.” Similarly, in the second item, the words those
he represents suggest that constituent means “someone represented.”
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 contention
– noun
• The artist’s contention is that he was born in Paris, but actually
he was born in a small town in Missouri.
• John’s contention was that smoking hadn’t hurt his health, but
right after making that statement, he had a fit of coughing that
lasted ten minutes.
Contention means
A. an attempt.
B. a realization.
C. a claim.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 contention
– noun
• The artist’s contention is that he was born in Paris, but actually
he was born in a small town in Missouri.
• John’s contention was that smoking hadn’t hurt his health, but
right after making that statement, he had a fit of coughing that
lasted ten minutes.
Contention means
A. an attempt.
B. a realization.
C. a claim.
The artist claims (falsely) that he was born in Paris. John claims that
smoking hadn’t hurt his health. (His cough suggests otherwise.)
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 irreparable
– adjective
• The damage to the vase is irreparable. It broke into so many
pieces that it cannot possibly be put together again.
• LaTanya apologized to Fred for her angry words, but I’m afraid the
harm to their friendship is irreparable.
Irreparable means
A. untrue.
B. not able to be fixed.
C. unnatural.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 irreparable
– adjective
• The damage to the vase is irreparable. It broke into so many
pieces that it cannot possibly be put together again.
• LaTanya apologized to Fred for her angry words, but I’m afraid the
harm to their friendship is irreparable.
Irreparable means
A. untrue.
B. not able to be fixed.
C. unnatural.
If the vase cannot be put together again, the damage is not able to
be fixed. The harm done by LaTanya’s angry words is so great that
it is not able to be fixed even by an apology.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 pinnacle
– noun
• Robin felt that being elected class president was the pinnacle of
her college years. Her parents, though, wish that she had thought
of her “personal best” more in terms of academic achievement.
• The rock singer seems to have reached the pinnacle of her
career: she’s at the height of her popularity, and her recordings
are selling more than ever before.
Pinnacle means
A. the highest point.
B. the starting point.
C. the end.
A mountain pinnacle
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 pinnacle
– noun
• Robin felt that being elected class president was the pinnacle of
her college years. Her parents, though, wish that she had thought
of her “personal best” more in terms of academic achievement.
• The rock singer seems to have reached the pinnacle of her
career: she’s at the height of her popularity, and her recordings
are selling more than ever before.
Pinnacle means
A. the highest point.
B. the starting point.
C. the end.
A mountain pinnacle
The words personal best suggest that
pinnacle means “the highest point.” If
the singer is at the height of her
popularity, she seems to have reached
the highest point of her career.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 platitude
– noun
• Some conversations are made up entirely of platitudes: “Good to
see you.” “We’ve got to get together sometime.” “Well, take care.”
• I made no response to the clerk’s “Have a nice day.” He meant well,
but I’m tired of platitudes like that.
Platitude means
A. good advice.
B. an unoriginal comment.
C. a lie.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 platitude
– noun
• Some conversations are made up entirely of platitudes: “Good to
see you.” “We’ve got to get together sometime.” “Well, take care.”
• I made no response to the clerk’s “Have a nice day.” He meant well,
but I’m tired of platitudes like that.
Platitude means
A. good advice.
B. an unoriginal comment.
C. a lie.
The first item gives three examples of an unoriginal comment. In the
second item, “Have a nice day” is another example of an unoriginal
comment.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 promiscuous
– adjective
• In this age of HIV and AIDS, it’s more important than ever for
people to be choosy about sexual partners. Being promiscuous
can have deadly consequences.
• When it comes to women, Erik and Harry are opposites. Erik
dates one woman at a time and is serious about commitment, but
Harry is totally promiscuous.
Promiscuous means
A. faithful.
B. unselective.
C. rude.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 promiscuous
– adjective
• In this age of HIV and AIDS, it’s more important than ever for
people to be choosy about sexual partners. Being promiscuous
can have deadly consequences.
• When it comes to women, Erik and Harry are opposites. Erik
dates one woman at a time and is serious about commitment, but
Harry is totally promiscuous.
Promiscuous means
A. faithful.
B. unselective.
C. rude.
In the first item, the word choosy suggests that promiscuous means
the opposite—“unselective.” In the second item, unlike Erik, Harry is
unselective about whom he dates.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 repudiate
– verb
• The actor repudiated his biography, saying it had been written
without his consent or cooperation and that it was filled with lies.
• After the millionaire died, several people showed up claiming to
be his children and demanding a share of his estate, but his real
family repudiated their claims.
Repudiate means
A. to accept.
B. to discuss.
C. to reject.
Protesters repudiating the war in Iraq
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 repudiate
– verb
• The actor repudiated his biography, saying it had been written
without his consent or cooperation and that it was filled with lies.
• After the millionaire died, several people showed up claiming to
be his children and demanding a share of his estate, but his real
family repudiated their claims.
Repudiate means
A. to accept.
B. to discuss.
C. to reject.
Protesters repudiating the war in Iraq
If the actor says the biography is filled
with lies, he rejects it. The millionaire’s
real family would reject the claims of
people pretending to be children of the
dead man.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 spontaneous
– adjective
• The key to good acting is to be so well prepared that all words
and actions seem natural and spontaneous, not rehearsed.
• When I asked Shawn to the movies, I tried to make the invitation
sound spontaneous, as if I’d just thought of it. I didn’t want him
to know that I’d been planning it, nervously, for days.
Spontaneous means
A. unplanned.
B. clever.
C. irresistible.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 spontaneous
– adjective
• The key to good acting is to be so well prepared that all words
and actions seem natural and spontaneous, not rehearsed.
• When I asked Shawn to the movies, I tried to make the invitation
sound spontaneous, as if I’d just thought of it. I didn’t want him
to know that I’d been planning it, nervously, for days.
Spontaneous means
A. unplanned.
B. clever.
C. irresistible.
Words and actions seem unrehearsed would seem unplanned.
Although the invitation has been carefully planned, the speaker tries
to make it sound unplanned. The words just thought of it are a clue.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 stigma
– noun
• In the past, seeing a psychiatrist might harm a person’s reputation,
but now there’s little or no stigma attached to seeking help for
psychological problems.
• For a long time, there was a stigma associated with divorce. Today, of
course, divorce is so common that it’s no longer considered a disgrace.
Stigma means
A. dishonor.
B. an insight.
C. an argument.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 stigma
– noun
• In the past, seeing a psychiatrist might harm a person’s reputation,
but now there’s little or no stigma attached to seeking help for
psychological problems.
• For a long time, there was a stigma associated with divorce. Today, of
course, divorce is so common that it’s no longer considered a disgrace.
Stigma means
A. dishonor.
B. an insight.
C. an argument.
In contrast with harming a person’s reputation, seeing a psychiatrist
no longer has dishonor attached to it. In the second item, the word
disgrace suggests that stigma means “dishonor.”
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
1. Some animals are ___________ in their breeding habits,
mating freely with no apparent effort at selection.
2. The painting was being auctioned off as an early work of a
well-known artist—until the artist _______(e)d it, saying
that she had never painted it at all.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
1. Some animals are ___________
promiscuous in their breeding habits,
mating freely with no apparent effort at selection.
Animals that make no effort at selection are unselective.
2. The painting was being auctioned off as an early work of a
well-known artist—until the artist __________
repudiated it, saying
that she had never painted it at all.
If the artist says she didn’t paint the picture, she is denying the
validity of the claim that it is one of her early works.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
3. Eyeglasses have become so fashionable by now that
there is no longer any __________ about wearing them.
4. After the earthquake, some houses that were still standing
nevertheless had to be completely destroyed; the damage
to them was __________.
5. Tisha is a(n) _______ sales representative; she can convince
anyone on the phone, and she can get her foot in any door.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
3. Eyeglasses have become so fashionable by now that
there is no longer any __________
about wearing them.
stigma
Something that is fashionable would not carry any mark of shame.
4. After the earthquake, some houses that were still standing
nevertheless had to be completely destroyed; the damage
to them was __________.
irreparable
If they had to be destroyed, they must not have been able to be repaired.
5. Tisha is an _________
adroit sales representative; she can convince
anyone on the phone, and she can get her foot in any door.
The description of Tisha’s abilities show that she is a skillful and clever
sales representative.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
6. Many people say that the plays of William Shakespeare—
considered the greatest playwright who ever lived—represent
the __________ of English drama.
7. Our football game was ___________; we had no plans to
play, but then we found an old football as we walked across
the field.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
6. Many people say that the plays of William Shakespeare—
considered the greatest playwright who ever lived—represent
the __________
pinnacle of English drama.
The greatest writer’s plays would represent the highest point of drama.
7. Our football game was ___________;
spontaneous we had no plans to
play, but then we found an old football as we walked across
the field.
If they had no plans to play, the game was unplanned.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
8. When Galileo made the _________ that the sun, not the Earth,
is the center of our planetary system, the Catholic Church
forced him to deny what he knew to be true.
9. Some elected representatives vote as the majority of their
_________s wish, but others follow their own choice, even if
it represents a minority opinion.
10. When Jimmy tells me about his problems, I don’t know
what to say. I just mumble _________s like “That’s too
bad” or “Oh well, I’m sure you’ll work it out.”
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. adroit
B. constituent
C. contention
F. platitude
G. promiscuous H. repudiate
D. irreparable
E. pinnacle
I. spontaneous J. stigma
8. When Galileo made the _________
contention that the sun, not the Earth,
is the center of our planetary system, the Catholic Church
forced him to deny what he knew to be true.
Since Galileo knew it was true, he made the claim that it was true.
9. Some elected representatives vote as the majority of their
__________
constituents wish, but others follow their own choice, even if
it represents a minority opinion.
Some officials vote as the majority of the people they represent wish.
10. When Jimmy tells me about his problems, I don’t know
what to say. I just mumble __________
platitudes like “That’s too
bad” or “Oh well, I’m sure you’ll work it out.”
This item gives two examples of commonplace remarks.
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